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Daunfeldt, S.-O., Johansson, D. & Westerberg, H. (2019). Which firms provide jobs for unemployed non-Western immigrants?. Service Industries Journal, 39(9-10), 762-778
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which firms provide jobs for unemployed non-Western immigrants?
2019 (English)In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 39, no 9-10, p. 762-778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the refugee immigration crisis is one of the major socio-economic challenges in Europe, we still lack knowledge on what characterizes firms that provide jobs for unemployed immigrants. We provide an answer by investigating firms that recruit unemployed non-Western immigrants using matched employer-employee data from Statistics Sweden. We find large industry differences; firms active in the service sectors, such as the hospitality, transport, and healthcare industries, are much more likely to hire unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms in high-tech and manufacturing industries. In addition, after controlling for educational attainment and industry of occupation, firms with at least one non-Western immigrant manager hire more than four times as many unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms without any non-Western immigrant managers. Public policies that target industries might thus also influence job opportunities for immigrants and, thereby, the possibility of their integration into society. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Immigration, labor market, unemployment, networks, segregation, skill-sortin
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69288 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2018.1534961 (DOI)000469991000007 ()
Funder
Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Anyadike-Danes, M., Bjuggren, C. M., Dumont, M., Gottschalk, S., Hölzl, W., Johansson, D., . . . Zheng, G. (2018). An International Comparison of the Contribution to Job Creation by High-growth Firms. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An International Comparison of the Contribution to Job Creation by High-growth Firms
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2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses three simple questions: how should the contribution of HGFs to job creation be measured? how much does this contribution vary across countries? to what extent does the cross-country variation depend on variation in the proportion of HGFs in the business population? The first is a methodological question which we answer using a more highly articulated version of the standard job creation and destruction accounts. The other two are empirical questions which we answer using a purpose-built dataset assembled from national firm-level sources and covering nine countries, spanning the ten three year periods from 2000/03 to 2009/12. The basic principle governing the development of the accounting framework is the choice of appropriate comparators. Firstly, when measuring contributions to job creation, we should focus on just job creating firms, otherwise we are summing over contributions from firms with positive, zero, and negative job creation numbers. Secondly, because we know growth depends in part on size, the ’natural’ comparison for HGFs is with job creation by similar-sized firms which simply did not grow as fast as HGFs. However, we also show how the measurement framework can be further extended to include, for example, a consistent measure of the contribution of small job creating firms. On the empirical side, we find that the HGF share of job creation by large job creating firms varies across countries by a factor of two, from around one third to two thirds. A relatively small proportion of this cross-country variation is accounted for by variations in the influence of HGFs on job creation. On average HGFs generated between three or four times as many jobs as large non-HGF job creating firms, but this ratio is relatively similar across countries. The bulk of the cross-country variation in HGF contribution to job creation is accounted for by the relative abundance (or rarity) of HGFs. Moreover, we also show that the measurement of abundance depends upon the choice of measurement framework: the ’winner’ of a cross-national HGF ’beauty context’ on one measure will not necessarily be the winner on another.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), 2018. p. 32
Series
HUI Working Papers ; 1216
Keywords
High-growth firmsh, firm growth, job creation
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76037 (URN)
Note

JEL codes: D22; E24; L11; L25; L26; M13

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
Andersson, F., Johansson, D., Karlsson, J., Lodefalk, M. & Poldahl, A. (2018). Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 35(3), 303-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2018
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57683 (URN)10.1504/IJESB.2018.095903 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055855794 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Tillväxthinder i små och medelstora företag
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional GrowthThe Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Andersson, F., Johansson, D., Karlsson, J., Lodefalk, M. & Poldahl, A. (2018). The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data. Small Business Economics, 51(3), 539-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data
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2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2018
Keywords
Entrepreneur, Family firms, Employment, GDP, Register data
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61172 (URN)10.1007/s11187-017-9947-6 (DOI)000443439100003 ()2-s2.0-85030325971 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Familjeföretagandets betydelse
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius FoundationSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Johansson, D., Stenkula, M. & Wykman, N. (2018). The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–2018. Örebro: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–2018
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 75
Series
Working Papers, School of Business, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 10
Keywords
Family firms, foundations, high-impact entrepreneurship, owner, taxation
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76039 (URN)
Note

JEL codes: H20; K34; L26; N44

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, D., Stenkula, M. & Wykman, N. (2018). The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–2018. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Rise of Private Foundations as Owners of Swedish Industry: The Role of Tax Incentives 1862–2018
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The tax system has at times favoured firm control through private foundations, which has been argued to inhibit high-impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. However, research has been hampered due to a lack of systematic historical tax data. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, we describe the evolution of tax rules for private foundations in Sweden between 1862 and 2018. Second, we calculate the marginal effective tax rate on capital income. Third, we examine the incentives to use private foundations as a means for corporate control by comparing the taxation of private foundations and of high-impact entrepreneurs. Tax incentives help explain why economically significant private foundations were founded between World War I and the 1960s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), 2018. p. 75
Series
IFN Working Paper ; 1245
Keywords
Family firms, foundations, high-impact entrepreneurship, owner, taxation
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76038 (URN)10.2139/ssrn.3279580 (DOI)
Note

JEL Classification: D31; H32; K34; L26; N23; O43; P12; P14

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Daunfeldt, S.-O., Johansson, D. & Seerar-Westerberg, H. (2018). Which firms provide jobs for unemployed non-Western immigrants?. HUI Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Which firms provide jobs for unemployed non-Western immigrants?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although the refugee immigration crisis is one of the major socioeconomic challenges in Europe, we still lack knowledge on what characterizes firms that provide jobs for unemployed immigrants. We provide an answer by investigating firms that recruit unemployed non- Western immigrants using matched employer-employee data from Statistics Sweden. We find large industry differences; firms active in the service sectors, such as the hospitality, transport, and healthcare industries, are much more likely to hire unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms in high-tech and manufacturing industries. In addition, after controlling for educational attainment and industry of occupation, firms with at least one non-Western immigrant manager hire more than four times as many unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms without any non-Western immigrant managers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
HUI Research, 2018
Series
HUI Working Papers ; 133
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76040 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Johansson, D. & Malm, A. (2017). Economics Doctoral Programs Still Elide Entrepreneurship. Econ Journal Watch, 14(2), 196-217
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economics Doctoral Programs Still Elide Entrepreneurship
2017 (English)In: Econ Journal Watch, ISSN 1933-527X, E-ISSN 1933-527X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 196-217Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Is entrepreneurship covered in economics doctoral programs? Updating an earlier study (Johansson 2004), we examine leading programs in the United States and Sweden by textual analysis of textbooks and assigned articles in microeconomics, macroeconomics, and industrial organization courses. We find that coverage of entrepreneurship in textbooks is scant and that theories regarding the function of the entrepreneur are hardly mentioned in assigned articles. Talk of the entrepreneur is more common in a few newer textbooks, which could indicate a renewed interest. But even textbooks that mention the entrepreneur do not define the concept or discuss the entrepreneur’s economic role in any depth; often the entrepreneur is just another optimizing agent within a model, like a borrower, manager, or investor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlas Economic Research Foundation, 2017
Keywords
Entrepreneur, innovation, institution, invention, teaching, textbook
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57890 (URN)000403570100005 ()2-s2.0-85020226665 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-04 Created: 2017-06-04 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Andersson, F., Johansson, D., Karlsson, J., Lodefalk, M. & Poldahl, A. (2017). The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University School of Business
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data
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2017 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro University School of Business, 2017. p. 58
Series
Working Papers, School of Business, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 2017:1
Keywords
Entrepreneur, family firms, employment, GDP, register data
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64148 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved
Daunfeldt, S.-O., Elert, N. & Johansson, D. (2016). Are high-growth firms overrepresented in high-tech industries?. Industrial and Corporate Change, 25(1), 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are high-growth firms overrepresented in high-tech industries?
2016 (English)In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is frequently argued that policymakers should target high-tech firms, i.e., firms with high R&D intensity, because such firms are considered more innovative and therefore potential fast-growers. This argument relies on the assumption that the association among high-tech status, innovativeness, and growth is actually positive. We examine this assumption by studying the industry distribution of high-growth firms (HGFs) across all four-digit NACE industries, using data covering all limited liability firms in Sweden during the period 1997-2008. The results of fractional logit regressions indicate that industries with high R&D intensity, ceteris paribus, can be expected to have a lower share of HGFs than can industries with lower R&D intensity. The findings cast doubt on the wisdom of targeting R&D industries or subsidizing R&D to promote firm growth. In contrast, we find that HGFs are overrepresented in knowledge-intensive service industries, i.e., service industries with a high share of human capital.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2016
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52997 (URN)10.1093/icc/dtv035 (DOI)000371151300001 ()2-s2.0-84960129450 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

R&D Fund of the Swedish Tourism and Hospitality Industry (BFUF)

Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5610-8526

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