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Rotander, Anna
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Baduel, C., Mueller, J. F., Rotander, A., Corfield, J. & Gomez-Ramos, M.-J. (2017). Discovery of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a fire fighting training ground and preliminary investigation of their fate and mobility. Chemosphere, 185, 1030-1038
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discovery of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a fire fighting training ground and preliminary investigation of their fate and mobility
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, p. 1030-1038Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) have been released at fire training facilities for several decades resulting in the contamination of soil and groundwater by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). AFFF compositions are proprietary and may contain a broad range of PFASs for which the chemical structures and degradation products are not known. In this study, high resolution quadrupole-time-of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) in combination with data processing using filtering strategies was applied to characterize and elucidate the PFASs present in concrete extracts collected at a fire training ground after the historical use of various AFFF formulations. Twelve different fluorochemical classes, representing more than 60 chemicals, were detected and identified in the concrete extracts. Novel PFASs homologues, unmonitored before in environmental samples such as chlorinated PFSAs, ketone PFSAs, dichlorinated PFSAs and perfluoroalkane sulphonamides (FASAs) were detected in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the fire training ground. Their detection in the soil cores (from 0 to 2 m) give an insight on the potential mobility of these newly identified PFASs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Non target analysis, PFASs, Contaminated soil, Groundwater contamination, Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), LC-QTOF-MS/MS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61034 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.096 (DOI)000408597300116 ()28763938 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85025671626 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

ARC Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities (LIEF)  LE 140100129 

ARC  FF 120100546 

Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Bräunig, J., Baduel, C., Heffernan, A., Rotander, A., Donaldson, E. & Mueller, J. F. (2017). Fate and redistribution of perfluoroalkyl acids through AFFF-impacted groundwater. Science of the Total Environment, 596, 360-368
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate and redistribution of perfluoroalkyl acids through AFFF-impacted groundwater
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2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 596, p. 360-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leaching of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from a local point source, a fire-fighting training area, has led to extensive contamination of a groundwater aquifer which has spread underneath part of a nearby town, Oakey, situated in the State of Queensland, Australia. Groundwater is extracted by residents from privately owned wells for daily activities such as watering livestock and garden beds. The concentration of 10 PFAAs in environmental and biological samples (water, soil, grass, chicken egg yolk, serum of horses, cattle and sheep), as well as human serum was investigated to determine the extent of contamination in the town and discuss fate and redistribution of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAA in all matrices investigated, followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). PFOS concentrations measured in water ranged between <0.17-14 mu g/L, concentrations of PFHxS measured between <0.07-6 mu g/L. PFAAs were detected in backyards (soil, grass), livestock and chicken egg yolk. Significant differences (p < 0.01) in PFOS and PFHxS concentrations in two groups of cattle were found, one held within the contamination plume, the other in the vicinity but outside of the contamination plume. In human serum PFOS concentrations ranged from 38 to 381 mu g/L, while PFHxS ranged from 39 to 214 mu g/L. Highest PFOS concentrations measured in human serum were >30-fold higher compared to the general Australian population. Through use of contaminated groundwater secondary sources of PFAA contamination are created on private property, leading to further redistribution of contamination and creation of additional human exposure pathways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Groundwater contamination, Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF), Human blood serum, Creation of secondary sources
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57896 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.095 (DOI)000401557600038 ()28441576 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85018462297 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

ARC future fellowship  FF120100546 

University of Queensland  

Queensland Department of Health 

Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
Rotander, A., Kärrman, A., Toms, L.-M. L., Kay, M., Mueller, J. F. & Gómez Ramos, M. J. (2015). Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(4), 2434-2442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 2434-2442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42555 (URN)10.1021/es503653n (DOI)000349806400056 ()25611076 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84923090030 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Queensland Health

Australian Research Council (ARC) FF120100546

ARC DE120100161

Available from: 2015-02-09 Created: 2015-02-09 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Toms, L. M., Thompson, J., Rotander, A., Hobson, P., Calafat, A., Kato, K., . . . Mueller, J. F. (2014). Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011. Environment International, 71, 74-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011
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2014 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002-2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends.

Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n=26); 2008/09 (n=24) and 2010/11 (n=24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n=84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <. 16. years (2002/03 only); 0-4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5-15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >. 60. years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry.

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3-19.2. ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4-17.4. ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8-7.3. ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1-6.5. ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <. 1. ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2-5.7. ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4-5.4. ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5-15. year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0-4. year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA).

This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends were variable and concentrations were higher in males than in females. Global use has been in decline since around 2002 and hence primary exposure levels are expected to be decreasing. Further biomonitoring will allow assessment of PFAS exposures to confirm trends in exposure as primary and eventually secondary sources are depleted.

Keywords
Biomonitoring; Human blood serum; Perfluoroalkyl; PFAS; Polyfluoroalkyl substances
National Category
Environmental Sciences Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41637 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.019 (DOI)000341745100008 ()24980755 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84903545309 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

ARC DECRA DE120100161

ARC Future Fellowship FF120100546

University of Queensland

Queensland Health

Australian Government Department of the Environment

Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans. Environment International, 51, 8-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
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2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28803 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2012.09.001 (DOI)000314618100002 ()23138016 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84868330094 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Cancer and Allergy Foundation 

Available from: 2013-04-24 Created: 2013-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Hagberg, J., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B. & Engwall, M. (2013). Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. Environmental science and pollution research international, 20(12), 8511-8520
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils
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2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8511-8520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology; Environmental Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29084 (URN)10.1007/s11356-013-1787-6 (DOI)000327498600022 ()
Funder
Knowledge FoundationSwedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Brunström, B., Bäcklin, B.-M. & Magnusson, U. (2013). Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden. Chemosphere, 90(5), 1664-1671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden
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2013 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1664-1671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The Sigma PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180,170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on Sigma PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6Me-PBDEO 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Mink, PCB, Brominated flame retardants (PBDE), Methoxylated PBDE, Age-dependent accumulation, Seasonal variation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54870 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.060 (DOI)000314560500014 ()23141558 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84872261524 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency:

Environmental Monitoring program at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 

Available from: 2017-01-19 Created: 2017-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Rotander, A., Kärrman, A., van Bavel, B. & Magnusson, U. (2013). Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area. Environment International, 59, 425-430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area
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2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 59, p. 425-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C-8-C-13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n = 101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250 ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800 ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6 ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p < 0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken" in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Perfluoroalkyl acids, Perfluorinated, PFOS, Mink
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32436 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2013.06.025 (DOI)000324901000045 ()
Note

Funding agency: Environmental Monitoring Program at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Available from: 2013-11-18 Created: 2013-11-18 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, U., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., Mikkelsen, B. & Dam, M. (2013). Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands. Environmental science and pollution research international, 20(11), 7940-7948
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands
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2013 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7940-7948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crSme fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32467 (URN)10.1007/s11356-013-1700-3 (DOI)000325811600039 ()
Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions. Environmental science. Processes & impacts, 15(4), 814-822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
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2013 (English)In: Environmental science. Processes & impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 814-822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8: 2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per-and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mu g m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 mg m(-3) (mean = 114 mu g m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 mu g m(-3) (mean = 0.53 mu g m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (<30 ng m(-3)) levels. FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed an average level of 12 mu g m(-3) (range = 1.2-47 mu g m(-3)). The ski waxers' exposure to paraffin fumes and PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28912 (URN)10.1039/c3em30739e (DOI)000316869900013 ()
Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
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