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Wahlström, N. & Bergh, A. (2014). Teacher agency from a perspective of transactional realism. In: Teachers matter - But how?: . Paper presented at Teachers matter - But how? Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden, October 23-24, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Teacher agency from a perspective of transactional realism
2014 (English)In: Teachers matter - But how?, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-38758 (URN)
Conference
Teachers matter - But how? Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden, October 23-24, 2014
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. & Sundström Sjödin, E. (2014). What counts as reality in teachers’ experiences: Bringing materialism into pragmatism. In: : . Paper presented at Teachers Matter – But How? International Research Conference at Linnæus University Växjö, Sweden, October 23-24, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What counts as reality in teachers’ experiences: Bringing materialism into pragmatism
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

General description and purpose: In this paper we explore the ‘realist’ dimension in Dewey’s version of pragmatism and especially in his concept of experience. Inspired by Actor-Network Theory (ANT), we suggest that moving Dewey’s ideas towards notions of the significance of material realities would contribute to a more complex understanding of teachers’ experiences of power and constraints that might have a potential influence on their actions in institutional settings, which is also the purpose of this paper. In this, mostly conceptual, inquiry we illustrate our argument with a narrative from an interview in a daily newspaper, where a teacher give her view of the different forms of forces and influences she encounters in her task of grading the students. Our research questions are: How can the concept of transactional realism contribute to a ‘renewed’ understanding of pragmatism that also includes material aspects? How can material aspects contribute to and shed light on teachers' room for action?

Theoretical and methodological framework: In recent years, there has been a revivification of interest in pragmatist philosophy among social science and a renewed interest of pragmatism, as a “post-postmodern” approach (Hickman 2007), resolving around two turns: the realist version of reflexivity inherent in pragmatic philosophy and the temporal frame of social inquiry that places reflexive realism in a future-oriented ontology (Rosiek 2013). In the paper we explore the relations between transactional realism and the notion of time, space and a more intersubjective interpretation of meaning, consistent with some of the ideas developed in ANT. In the inquiry, we trace the factors, human and non-human, that enact a teacher’s work with grading.

Expected conclusions: We suggest that the concept of experience is the bridge that links ‘the linguistic turn’ with realism, and that the allowance of transactional agency for non-humans, develop Dewey’s transactional realism, and provide for a more sensitive exploration of the complexities that make up teachers’ realities. In our empirical example, the teacher’s work with grading is enacted in the relational network she finds herself in, a network in which several different actors cooperate: economic, political and material. 

Keywords
transactional realism, materialism, actor-network theory, teachers' work
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-42376 (URN)
Conference
Teachers Matter – But How? International Research Conference at Linnæus University Växjö, Sweden, October 23-24, 2014
Available from: 2015-02-03 Created: 2015-02-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N., Skillmark, A. & Skoog, M. (2013). Contextualizing critical literacy. In: : . Paper presented at NFPF/ NERA, Nordic Conference on Educational Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, March 7-9, 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualizing critical literacy
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper concerns critical literacy and its relation to society. The microanalytic focus on texts, methods and learners in critical literacy studies needs to be supplemented by addressing how local text practices are shaped in relation to larger social forces and global changes, as Luke & Freebody (1997) argue, when they emphasize that these larger perspectives “can form the very bases and objects of study of a critical literacy curriculum”. They ask for a stronger social imagination in guiding literacy education, acknowledging globalized political and environmental challenges as well as new communication patterns. To capture these wider social conditions, we take our starting point in the concept of cosmopolitanism.

Drawing on a growing interest for empirical studies in critical literacy and literacy content in early literacy education (e.g. Bergöö & Jönsson 2012, Schmidt & Gustavsson 2011), we will in this paper more clearly address the question: ‘critical literacy in relation to what?’ when conducting empirical studies. Thus, the aim of this paper is to answer the following two interrelated research questions: With what concepts can the ambiguous term ‘critical literacy’ be characterized? How can critical literacy be related to the wider society through the concept of cosmopolitanism?

This study is a conceptual analysis in the border zone between empirical literacy studies and studies in sociology/philosophy, where we examine the possibilities of establishing a link between the concepts of critical literacy and cosmopolitanism. Thus we examine connections between basic assumptions in critical literacy through the lens of three scholars within the genre: Anne Haas Dyson (1997), Vivian Maria Vasques (2004) and Hilary Janks (2010), in relation to three perspectives on cosmopolitanism: as cosmopolitan orientation, as cosmopolitanization and as a communicative cosmopolitanism.

The analysis shows that critical literacy can be understood as a socio-political approach to literacy, framed by a critical social theory of cosmopolitanism, in its focus on deconstructing and reconstruction of texts and images.

Relevance: The paper elaborate on the relation between two topical international research concepts, critical literacy and cosmopolitanism, which represent an interest for Nordic researchers

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65763 (URN)
Conference
NFPF/ NERA, Nordic Conference on Educational Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, March 7-9, 2013
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2013). National and transnational conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula. Paper presented at Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), March 7-9 2013,Reykjavik, Iceland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National and transnational conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

If one accepts Ulrich Beck’s (2006) argument that modern societies are characterized by a state of ’cosmopolitanization’, the nation as a unit for research cannot be taken as a given. Transactional interactions, whose boundaries are not clearly defined, do not replace – but incorporate – the nation-state in transnational systems of regulation, not least in education policy; and an important task is to examine national education documents, like curriculum, embedded within transnational policy forces (‘methodological cosmopolitanism’, c.f. Beck & Grande 2010). In the paper, I take this transnational ‘reality’ in consideration and analyze the curricula, specifically Swedish and Civics, in curriculum 2011 in relation to these subjects in curricula from 2000, as well as to the PISA 2009 Reading Framework and national and transnational policy texts.       

 

In this case, the nations-state is an adequate unit of analysis; however, the analysis also needs to go beyond this unit to provide a full picture (Lawn & Grek 2012). Methodologically, I draw on critical discourse analysis based in the following features; distinguishing relations between discourse and other elements of the social process, analyzing texts in a systematic way, observing recontextualisation of discourses and recognizing the normative elements by discussing different consequences for social transformation  (Fairclough 2010). I also discuss my analytical results in relation to two main pedagogic models: competence models and performance models, in relation to discourse, space, evaluation, control and pedagogic text (Bernstein 2000). These models are in turn pointing at different orientations of curricula (Ross 2000).   

 

A broad and preliminary conclusion is that the curricula for the subjects in the version of 2000 and the Pisa framework is mostly emphasizing the competence model, while the curriculum 2011 are mostly emphasizing the performance model (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). Through the analysis it is possible to nuance and distinguish the characteristics within these broader models in problematizing the tensions between traditional and essential curricula. Exploring different (transnational) methodological approaches to curriculum studies is highly relevant to the Nordic countries considering their respectively relation to EU.  

 

Keywords
Curriculum theory, Europeanization, curriculum Lgr 11
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28755 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), March 7-9 2013,Reykjavik, Iceland
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2013). Who is the 'dreamteacher'?: teacher education policy from a critical cosmopolitan perspective. In: : . Paper presented at AERA Annual Meeting, April 27-May 1 2013,San Francisco,California.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who is the 'dreamteacher'?: teacher education policy from a critical cosmopolitan perspective
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Phelan & Sumsion (2008) raised the question about what is, and what is not, perceived in teacher education, from the premise that until we can address what is absent, it will be difficult to catch sight of an alternative teacher education. In this paper I examine policy texts on teacher education, as authoritative and discursive influential texts, through a cosmopolitan lens. The purpose of the study is to contrast a (perceived) internationalized perspective on teacher education with economical overtones, and a (not perceived) perspective on teacher education from a 'capabilities approach', developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, to examine how ‘new’ questions can generate new discourses concerning teacher competences. The question posed here is: How can the ‘capabilities approach’ contribute to develop a deepened understanding of teacher education policy as an important factor in the struggle for reducing inequalities and poverty?  

Introduction

From the perspective of education as a basic need and a fundamental right for all (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999); and with Nussbaum’s words “the key to all the human capabilities” (Nussbaum 2007, p. 322), teacher education concerns all nations, and we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities' does a specific teacher education promote? For example, does this specific teacher education pay attention to a range of perspectives, global as well as national and local, or does it narrow the scope of educational questions to themes of skills and basic knowledge?  As Sen (1999, p. 19) notes, a capability is based on the freedom and power to do something and this power also can make room for demands of duty. Hence, the analytical question can be formulated as: what professional duties are emphasized in transnational policy texts on teacher education?  

 

Background

There is an increasing income inequality in OECD countries. It first started in the United Kingdom and the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but from the late 1980s the increase in income inequality became more widespread. In the beginning of the 2000s, there is a widening gap between the rich and the poor, both in high-inequality countries and in traditionally low-inequality countries. Examples of the latter are Germany, Denmark and Sweden, where inequality grew more than in other OECD countries in the 2000s (OECD 2011a). When it comes to inequality patterns for the seven largest emerging economies, they all have levels of income inequality significantly higher than the OECD average (OECD 2011b). The concept of poverty in these findings is perceived as a relative measure: as the difference between the group who have the lowest income and the group who have the highest income (OECD 2011a). The European Union Member States, who also are Member States in the OECD, have as one of their targets for “Europe 2020” to reduce the number of Europeans living below the national poverty lines with 25 % (or 20 million people). So poverty, or inequality, is a current problem also in ‘rich’ countries. As part of the efforts to tackle poverty, EU has formulated another, interrelated, target: to reduce early school leavers from 15% to 10 % in 2020 (European Commission 2010). On the African continent the conditions are different, and poverty is here measured in more absolute terms. According to the African Union Commission (2009, p. 14), a third of the people in much of the Continent are underfed and more than 40 per cent live in conditions of poverty. The conclusion that can be drawn from policy documents and reports from these three international policy organizations are that though the underlying forces of inequality are different between the OECD countries, the emerging economy nations and the countries on the African continent, education are on the list of proposed policy solutions for all three organizations. The policy recommendations claims that access to basic education and higher educational attainment are important; however, to serve as effective tools against poverty these opportunities also must be spread more widely between different social groups (OECD 2011a,b, European Commission 2010, African Union Commission 2009). As shown above, there is no absolute definition of poverty. In the paper I use the poverty definition formulated by the OECD: “An income level that is considered minimally sufficient to sustain a family in terms of food, housing, clothing, medical needs and so on” (OECD glossary), and contrast it with Sen’s (1999, p. 75) definition of capability as “the freedom to achieve alternative functioning combinations.”

 

Theoretical framework

The new global knowledge economy is based in an understanding of the economic importance of education. Michael Peters distinguishes between a view of a knowledge economy which posits the economy as subordinate to the state and as providing grounds for ‘education as a welfare right and the recognition of knowledge rights as a basis for social inclusion and informed citizenship’, and a view that sees the knowledge economy only in the service of trade and industry (Peters 2001, p. 13). In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy (e.g. Grek et al. 2009; Grek & Ozga 2010; Dale & Robertson 2009). A ‘global education policy’, circulating, transformed and ‘borrowed’ between international education policy arenas and nations, has emphasised concepts such as ‘quality assurance’ and ‘teacher quality’ which has had the effect that teacher training has become a focal point for policy interest. In research on international educational policy, exemplified by the references above, the research results are centered around concepts as ‘globalization’ and ‘marketization’. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) have also marked an increased interest in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerning education during the last two decades, and the collaboration between the two forms of organizations has been intensified, exemplified by the Education for All movement (EFA ) and the Global Campaign for Education (GCE); where in the latter, Oxfam International has played a leading role (Munday & Murphy 2001). In the paper, I complement the current research on international policy of education with a cosmopolitan perspective; and more specifically, with the perspective of ‘capablities approach’. According to Amartya Sen (1999), there is a strong case for seeing poverty as deprivation of basic capabilities and not only, which is the most commonly used in international comparisons, as lack of income and wealth. “The shift in perspective is important in giving us a different – and more directly relevant – view on poverty not only in the developing countries, but also in the more affluent societies” (Sen 1999, p. 20).     

The relation between cosmopolitanism and the 'capabilities approach', with Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum as its proponents, is ambiguous. Hansen (2011) understands the capabilities approach as part of an economic cosmopolitanism, influenced by values from political and moral cosmopolitanism, in its arguing for a bottom-up perspective on human capabilities, while acknowledging the need for institutional support. There are both similarities and differences in Nussbaum’s and Sen’s concepts of capabilities. Both agree on Sen’s attempt to create a space for understanding quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be. Nussbaum, however, more explicitly relates the capabilities approach to rights for each person (Nussbaum 2000, p. 13). Further, while Nussbaum emphasizes the notion of “human dignity”, Sen stresses the notion of “public reasoning”, i.e. a person’s capacity to read, communicate, participate, argue, being listened to, being able to make informed choices and decisions and to participate in democratic deliberations (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999). The link that can be drawn between the capabilities approach and cosmopolitanism is that the scope of the capability approach (as a philosophical work) applies “to all human beings independently of their country of birth or residence, and not only to social institutions but also to the social ethos and to social practices” (Robeyns 2011, p. 18).  Thus, I place the capabilities approach in the strand of cosmopolitanism that primarily understands cosmopolitanism as a principle of justice; in contrast to the other main strand that understands cosmopolitanism as culture (Scheffler 2001). An additional clarification can be made by contrasting institutional and moral cosmopolitanism, and thereby placing cosmopolitan global justice as premised on moral cosmopolitanism. The moral cosmopolitan view is based on the assumption that individuals are entitled to equal concern regardless of their nationality; but the focus is not on global institution building (Tan 2002). In sum, I view the capabilities approach as a moral claim on justice in a moderate version; that is, recognizing the distinction between social justice within a society, and norms of global justice as an addition to, but not as a replacement of, national principles of justice (c.f. Scheffler 2001). As Robeyns (2011) notes, the capability approach can serve, not only as analysis of inequality in developing countries, but also as a framework for policy evaluations in economically developed communities (c.f. Sen above).

Method

The questions raised in this proposal will be answered by analyses of international policy texts on teacher education, read through the lens of four key concepts developed from an analysis of the capabilities approach: 1) having a capacity to consider oneself as a citizen both in a nation and in the world; 2) having a capacity for critical examination of one’s own life as well as of others'; 3) having a capacity to develop an imaginative understanding for other people’s lives (Nussbaum 2006; 2007, p. 323); and 4) having a capacity to act as a member of a public, influencing the rest of the world (Sen 1999, p. 18). The analysis of the policy documents draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach by which I examine how policy texts on teacher education are legitimized by the use of concepts and arguments understood as specific social practices. A special focus in the analysis is the comparative strategy of identifying shifts and discontinuities in the vocabularies between different policy documents for teacher education, and in the naming and framing of teacher quality (c.f. Fairclough 2010 Bernstein 2000).

Data sources, evidence, objects or materials

In order to grasp the role of the teacher and its implications for teacher education expressed in different international policy documents, the discourse analysis is based on three main documents, and a number of follow up documents linked to each of these key documents. The key documents are: Teachers Matter. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD 2005); Improving the Quality of Teacher Education (European Commission 2007) and Second Decade of Education for Africa 2006-2015 (African Union 2006).

 

Results

The preliminary results show that teacher education in international policy documents is mainly discussed in terms of a ‘human capital’- discourse, based on economical concepts of promoting basic learning, teaching efficiency, resources for teaching; and, specifically concerning OECD, the acknowledgement of diversity. At the same time, each of the three organizations' key texts has its own specific emphasis. By examining the policy of teacher education through a perspective of ‘capabilities’, it also becomes possible to make an alternative approach to teacher education and programs for anti-poverty visible. The key factor in this latter perspective is the individual freedom as a two-way relationship - to be able to act and to be able to bring about change. In sum, in the first of the two discourses, the teacher’s task in relation to inequality is understood in terms of being an effective instructor; and in the second discourse, where poverty is related to a more inclusive idea of capability deprivation, the teacher's task is understood in terms of communication and self-reflection, emphasizing an awareness of power relations, reflectivity, deliberations and a cosmopolitan orientation.

 

Keywords
cosmopolitanism, capabilities, teacher education, educational policy
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29099 (URN)
Conference
AERA Annual Meeting, April 27-May 1 2013,San Francisco,California
Projects
Att lära studenter bli kosmopolitiska medborgare? Framtidsutsikter och utmaningar för svensk lärarutbildning
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2012). A communicative understanding of educational cosmopolitanism. Paper presented at Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA, 2012, in Copenhagen, 8-10 March.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A communicative understanding of educational cosmopolitanism
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The methodology in this paper is mainly a conceptual exploration of the concept of cosmopolitanism in a time of globalization. In the first part of my paper I will discuss cosmopolitanism in relation to curriculum theory. This has previously been done by for example Camicia and Franklin (2010). There is already a strong policy research in education, which often analyzes globalization in terms with economical connotations, as marketization, privatization, global competition etc (c.f. Ball 2007; Ozga 2009; Lundahl 2007). In this paper I will instead explore globalization in terms of the more philosophically influenced concept of cosmopolitanism, with its (also more) didactic implications. I draw on Kwame Anthony Appiah’s (2003, 2005, 2007, 2008) ethical perspective on cosmopolitanism and David Hansen’s (2008a, 2008b, 2009, 2011) concept of educational cosmopolitanism. In the discussion from which point of reference communication with ‘strangers’ becomes possible, Donald Davidson’s (1991/2001) notion of a shared world and a triangulation between one's own thoughts, others' thoughts and a common object is fruitful.  It is suggested that sharing a language of values is the essential common frame of reference for meaning-making (Appiah 2007). However, as Parker (2006) observes, listening, as an important part of conversation, requires itself special attention. We must, as Garrison (1996) puts it, put our own ideas at risk in listening with openness to others if we understand educational cosmopolitanism as reflective conversations.  

Keywords
curriculum theory, cosmopolitanism, communication
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22916 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA, 2012, in Copenhagen, 8-10 March
Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. & Skoog, M. (2012). A 'pluralistic literacy' - is there a need for such a didactic concept?. Paper presented at The Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA, Copenhagen, March 8-10, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 'pluralistic literacy' - is there a need for such a didactic concept?
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the concept of pluralistic literacy, we base the term literacy as a critical notion in an education characterized by pluralism (c.f. Kalantzis & Cope 2000), and transaction (c.f. Dewey 1949/1991). Pluralistic literacy is critical because it starts from the assumption that literacy is about “social power” and that a critical literacy education needs to go beyond literacy as a skill, “to engage students in the analysis and reconstruction of social fields” (Luke 2000, p. 451). Luke starts from the presupposition that reading and writing are about social power (ibid.). The critical aspect opens a reflective gap for the students to what is well-known as well as to what has earlier been unknown; a gap in which students reach a necessary distance to understand others, and others point of view (c.f. Haas Dyson 1997). Besides “which offer of meaning”, or “which story” the teacher choose to teach from, the didactic questions will be:  What sort of literacy do I invite my students to be (new) members of?  Is it possible for my students to ‘carry over’ some of their earlier experiences from other literacies into this literacy?  How to analyze the didactic questions of the what and the how is discussed in relation to an ethnographic two-years study of “written language learning” (and teaching), from preschool class through the first school year (Skoog 2012).

Keywords
literacy, globalization, critical literacy, transaction
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22917 (URN)
Conference
The Nordic Educational Research Association, NERA, Copenhagen, March 8-10, 2012
Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2012). Creating cosmopolitan meaning through conversation. Paper presented at American Educational Reserach Association, AERA, Vancouver, Canada, 13-17 april, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating cosmopolitan meaning through conversation
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I have tried to examine classroom conversations as a site for expressions of cosmopolitization. The concept allows for an understanding of cosmopolitanism as an ongoing and dynamic interaction between different societies at the same place and time. Thus, cosmopolitanism is not a goal or a distant ideal, but something societies and individuals must relate to; creating situations that they handle - of course - in different ways (Beck & Grande 2010). With the notion of ‘critical cosmopolitanism’, self-understanding and self-reflexivity are highlighted (Delanty 2006), and with the displacement from ‘translation’ to ‘transaction’ as the process for cosmopolitization, I want to emphasize the inter-subjective and transactional character of the reflexivity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

 

I take my starting point from a cosmopolitan view that we are inhabitants of the same world (albeit in very different ways) rather than being citizens of the world (c.f. Hansen 2011). To understand the process of people coordinating their lives across personal and cultural differences, communication and imagination become crucial notions. With reference to Appiah (2006), cosmopolitanism is possible because humans have a capacity to imagine other ways of life and to learn from one another, through listening to each others’ stories. Thus, the language of values is placed at the center of communication, and conversations on values are, in this case, conversations across different boundaries. What I have tried to do in this paper is to capture these moments of learning, by listening to conversations on values in local educational arenas. This implies some methodological considerations. First, I distinguish between ‘cosmopolitan orientation’ (Hansen 2011) and ‘cosmopolitan resistance’. Secondly, I use the term ‘critical cosmopolitanism’ as an expression of self-understanding and self-reflexivity in the space in between the global and local, and between the universal and particular.  For example, I interpret the tension between ‘the global’ and the local as encounters between ‘different societies’, between different particularities, in the one and same educational setting.  Thirdly, I use Dewey's concept of transaction, to emphasize the intersubjective condition of self-understanding and self-reflexivity, and I distinguish between efferent and aesthetic-reflective experiences, to be able to capture expressions of cosmopolitization in classroom conversations in terms of cosmopolitan encounters.

 

What I found was vivid conversations going on, not so much in general conversations on different values, but rather in 'snapshots'; a conversation that is interrupted by individual reflections and questions, the exchange of quick comments and debate, and then a continuation of the conversation in line with its original purpose. Or, put another way, the shift between efferent and aesthetic-reflective experiences which, in this examination, turned out to take the form of temporal shifts in terms of an ongoing efferent communication and its aesthetic-reflective interruptions. But even from these rapidly conducted ‘micro-conversations’ of reflections on values crossing borders, however unforeseeable and improvised they are, I suggest that these “ordinary” conversations in education contribute to reflections on cosmopolitan perspectives through their aesthetic-reflective potential. So, rather, the question is if the classrooms will remain a site for cross-border conversations in a time of increasing diversifying on the local level.

 

 

 

Keywords
cosmopolitanism, classroom study, cosmopolitanization, efferent experience, aesthetic-reflective experience
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-23001 (URN)
Conference
American Educational Reserach Association, AERA, Vancouver, Canada, 13-17 april, 2012
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2012). Den effektiva läraren: om konstruktionen av den goda läraren på en internationell utbildningsarena. In: Tomas Englund (Ed.), Föreställningar om den goda läraren (pp. 247-270). Göteborg: Daidalos
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den effektiva läraren: om konstruktionen av den goda läraren på en internationell utbildningsarena
2012 (Swedish)In: Föreställningar om den goda läraren / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2012, p. 247-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Intresset för läraren som företeelse och begrepp inom internationell utbildningspolicy grundar sig på antagandet att lärarens yrkesutövning är av avgörande betydelse för att eleverna ska nå de internationellt och nationellt formulerade målen. Flera internationella arenor pekar således ut den enskilde läraren som grundbulten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Intresset för lärarprofessionen är en följd av grundantagandet att en ökande internationalisering leder till snabba förändringar och ständigt ny teknikanvändning. Det kräver i sin tur att medborgarna har tillägnat sig en allmän kompetens som gör det möjligt för dem att hantera ständigt nya villkor, såväl inom arbetsmarknaden som i samhällslivet i övrigt. Läraren, konstrueras diskursivt som kontextoberoende, internationell och generell. Eftersom de kompetenser som eleverna ska uppnå är desamma i den industrialiserade världen, krävs det också samma kompetenser hos alla lärare vilket öppnar för standarder för lärarutbildning och kompetensprofiler för lärare som utformas gemensamt och samordnat inom organisationer som OECD och EU. Det är lärarens undervisningsförmåga som ska borga för effektiviteten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Med en sådan utgångspunkt är den effektiva lärare som beskrivs som ett ideal i de internationella policyinriktade utbildningstexter som har refererats till i detta kapitel att betrakta som en leverantör av utbildningstjänster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Daidalos, 2012
Keywords
Transnationell utbildningspolicy, lärarkompetens, lärarprofession, leverans
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25978 (URN)978-91-7173-383-2 (ISBN)
Projects
Läraren i samhällsomvandlingen 1940-2003: Den goda läraren som diskursiv konstruktion på olika samhälleliga arenor
Available from: 2012-09-23 Created: 2012-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, N. (2012). Educational cosmopolitanism: making meaning through reflective conversations. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association, AERA, Vancouver, April 13-17, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational cosmopolitanism: making meaning through reflective conversations
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the theoretical framework, I draw on Kwame Anthony Appiah’s (2005, 2007) ethical perspective on cosmopolitanism and David Hansen’s (2008a, 2008b) concept of educational cosmopolitanism. In the discussion from which point of reference communication with ‘strangers’ becomes possible, Donald Davidson’s (2001) notion of a shared world and a triangulation between one's own thoughts, others' thoughts and a common object are fruitful (Wahlström 2010). Davidson’s emphasis on a shared world is in accordance with Appiah’s (2005) claim that human beings can learn from each other’s stories only if they understand that they share a single world.  According to Appiah (2007), one of the central ways to coordinate our lives with others is through language of values. Thus, conversation means to be engaged in others and others' ideas, rather than coming to a common agreement. Hansen (2008a) examines curriculum as a ‘cosmopolitan inheritance’ and pays attention to which issues the world puts forth to students today. Rizvi (2009), on the other hand, inquires into cosmopolitan learning, with an emphasis on the identity and the connectivity with the rest of the world. I will use the concept of educational cosmopolitanism in this broader meaning of global interconnectedness and actual intercultural meetings in classrooms.

In understanding educational cosmopolitanism as conversations on values, listening becomes the crucial point.  We must, as Garrison (1996) puts it, put our own ideas at risk in listening with openness to others. A reason to take such a risk, is, according to Garrison, that we already always are vulnerable, and at risk, since we are all already members of different cultures and groups, and are already in dialogues with others, even if we perhaps are not always fully aware of it. However, in a cosmopolitan view of education, the importance of listening needs to be emphasized, and the role of the listener needs to be recognized. 

 

 

Keywords
cosmopolitanism, a shared world, listening, transaction
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22918 (URN)
Conference
American Educational Research Association, AERA, Vancouver, April 13-17, 2012
Available from: 2012-05-21 Created: 2012-05-21 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5554-6041

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