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Norgren, Lars
Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Arfvidsson, B., Nilsson, T. K. & Norgren, L. (2015). S100B concentrations increase perioperatively in jugular vein blood despite limited metabolic and inflammatory response to clinically uneventful carotid endarterectomy. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 53(1), 111-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>S100B concentrations increase perioperatively in jugular vein blood despite limited metabolic and inflammatory response to clinically uneventful carotid endarterectomy
2015 (English)In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that metabolic and inflammatory responses of the brain perioperatively during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) might affect blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity.

Methods: Twenty patients with >70% stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) were prospectively included. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. Blood was sampled from ipsilateral internal jugular vein and radial artery: just before, during, and after ICA clamping S100B protein, glucose, lactate, 20 amino acids, and key cytokines were analysed.

Results: Jugular vein S100B increased during clamping and reperfusion, while a marginal systemic increase was recorded, unrelated to stump pressure during clamping. Glucose increased during clamping in jugular vein blood and even more systemically, while jugular lactate values were higher than systemic values initially. Most amino acids did not differ significantly between jugular vein and systemic levels: glutamic acid and aspartic acid decreased during surgery while asparagine increased. Jugular vein interleukin (IL)-6 showed a transient non-significant increase during clamping and decreased systemically. IL-8 and IL-10 increased over time.

Conclusions: Rising jugular vein S100B concentrations indicated reduced BBB integrity, and marginal secondary increase of S100B systemically. Limited ischaemic effects on the brain during cross-clamping, unrelated to S100B concentrations, were confirmed by lower brain glucose levels and higher lactate levels than in systemic blood. The lack of increased jugular vein glutamic acid disproves any major ischaemic brain injury following CEA. The inflammatory response was limited, did not differ greatly between jugular and systemic blood, and was unrelated to S100B.

Keywords
carotid endarterectomy, inflammatory response, metabolism
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41118 (URN)10.1515/cclm-2014-0283 (DOI)000346021000020 ()25153417 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84916222026 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Research Committee of Örebro County Council

Örebro University

Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved
Skoog, P., Hörer, T. M., Nilsson, K. F. F., Norgren, L., Larzon, T. & Jansson, K. (2014). Abdominal Hypertension and Decompression: The Effect on Peritoneal Metabolism in an Experimental Porcine Study. , 47(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abdominal Hypertension and Decompression: The Effect on Peritoneal Metabolism in an Experimental Porcine Study
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2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study aims to investigate the abdominal metabolic response and circulatory changes after decompression of intra-abdominal hypertension in a porcine model. Design: Prospective study with controls. Setting: University hospital research laboratory.

Subjects: Three-months old domestic pigs of both sexes. Interventions: The animals were anesthetised and ventilated. Nine animals had a pneumoperitoneum-induced intra-abdominal hypertension of 30 mmHg for six hours. Twelve animals had corresponding intra-abdominal hypertension for four hours followed by decompression and were monitored for another two hours.

Measurements and Main Results: Hemodynamics, urine output and arterial blood samples were analysed. Laserdoppler measured mucosal blood flow and urine output decreased with pressure induction and showed a statistically significant restitution after decompression. Glucose, glycerol, lactate and pyruvate concentrations and lactate-pyruvate (l/p) ratio were measured by microdialysis. Both groups developed distinct metabolic changes intraperitoneally at pressure induction including an increased l/p ratio as signs of organ hypoperfusion. In the decompression group the intraperitoneal l/p ratio normalised during the second decompression hour, indicating partially restored perfusion.

Conclusions: Decompression after four hours of intra-abdominal hypertension results in restoration of intestinal blood flow and normalised intraperitoneal metabolism.

Keywords
Glycerol, Intra-abdominal hypertension, Lactate, Laser Doppler flowmetry, Microdialysis, Pyruvate
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34963 (URN)
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, T. B., Nilsson, T. K., Breimer, L. H., Schneede, J., Arfvidsson, B. & Norgren, L. (2014). Cloxacillin concentrations in serum, subcutaneous fat, and muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70(8), 957-963
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cloxacillin concentrations in serum, subcutaneous fat, and muscle in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 957-963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) have poor wound healing in the ankle and foot areas. Secondary wound infections are frequent and often treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics.

This study set out to investigate to what extent the unbound fraction of 4 g of cloxacillin i.v. reaches its target organ in poorly vascularized tissues, i.e., the calf and foot of patients suffering from CLI.

Cloxacillin concentrations were measured by HPLC in serum and in microdialysis samples from skin and muscle of the lower part of the calf and as reference subcutaneously at the pectoral level in eight patients suffering from CLI (four males, four females, mean age 78 years, range 66-85 years) and in three healthy controls (two females, one male, mean age 67, range 66-68 years).

In patients suffering from CLI, the tissue penetration of cloxacillin after a single 4 g dose was comparable to that of healthy controls, despite impaired blood circulation.

The reduced blood flow in the peripheral vessels of the CLI patients presented here apparently is not the rate-limiting factor for delivery or tissue penetration of cloxacillin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Keywords
Tissue cloxacillin concentration, Critical limb ischemia, Microdialysis, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue ischemia, Antibiotic treatment, Interstitial fluid
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject
Pharmaceutical Pharmacology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36163 (URN)10.1007/s00228-014-1695-9 (DOI)000339332700009 ()24858821 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84905120251 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-08-28 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Hörer, T. M., Skoog, P., Nilsson, K. F., Oikonomakis, I., Larzon, T., Norgren, L. & Jansson, K. (2014). Intraperitoneal Metabolic Consequences of Supraceliac Aortic Balloon Occlusion in an Experimental Animal Study Using Microdialysis. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 28(5), 1286-1295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intraperitoneal Metabolic Consequences of Supraceliac Aortic Balloon Occlusion in an Experimental Animal Study Using Microdialysis
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2014 (English)In: Annals of Vascular Surgery, ISSN 0890-5096, E-ISSN 1615-5947, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1286-1295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: To investigate the effects of supraceliac aortic balloon occlusion (ABO) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion on abdominal visceral metabolism in an animal model using intraperitoneal microdialysis (IPM) and laser Doppler flowmetry.

Methods: A total of 9 pigs were subjected to ABO and 7 animals were subjected to SMA occlusion for 1 hour followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Seven animals served as controls. Hemodynamic data, arterial blood samples, urinary output, and intestinal mucosal blood flow (IBF) were followed hourly. Intraperitoneal (i.p) glucose, glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations and lactate-to-pyruvate (lip) ratio were measured using IPM.

Results: Compared with the baseline, ABO reduced IBF by 76% and decreased urinary output. SMA occlusion reduced IBF by 75% without affecting urinary output. ABO increased the i.p lip ratio from 18 at baseline, peaking at 46 in early reperfusion. SMA occlusion and reperfusion tended to increase the i.p lip ratio, peaking at 36 in early reperfusion. ABO increased the i.p glycerol concentration from 87 mu M at baseline to 579 p,M after 3 hours of reperfusion. SMA occlusion and reperfusion increased The i.p glycerol concentration but to a lesser degree.

Conclusions: Supraceliac ABO caused severe hemodynamic, renal, and systemic metabolic disturbances compared with SMA occlusion, most likely because of the more extensive ischemia-reperfusion injury. The intra-abdominal metabolism, measured by microdialysis, was affected by both ABO and SMA occlusion but the most severe disturbances were caused by ABO. The i.p lip ratios and the glycerol concentrations increased during ischemia and reperfusion and may serve as markers of these events and indicate anaerobic metabolism and cell damages respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Surgery Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35805 (URN)10.1016/j.avsg.2014.01.005 (DOI)000338090700030 ()24509366 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84902795983 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-28 Created: 2014-07-30 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Skoog, P., Hörer, T. M., Ågren, G., Jansson, K. & Norgren, L. (2013). Intra-Abdominal Metabolism and Blood Flow During Abdominal Hypertension: A Porcine Pilot Study Under Intravenous Anaesthesia. Archives Of Clinical Experimental Surgery, 2(3), 176-185
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra-Abdominal Metabolism and Blood Flow During Abdominal Hypertension: A Porcine Pilot Study Under Intravenous Anaesthesia
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2013 (English)In: Archives Of Clinical Experimental Surgery, ISSN 2146-8133, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To study the splanchnic metabolism and intestinal circulation in a porcine model with increased abdominal pressure.

Methods: In an experimental porcine study, performed under intravenous anaesthesia, five animals were subjected to gradually increasing intra-abdominal pressure (15 mmHg, 25 mmHg, and 35 mmHg) with pneumoperitoneum. Microdialysis and laser Doppler were the main outcome methods for monitoring the metabolic and circulatory changes.

Results: During stable anaesthesia and gradually increasing intra-abdominal pressure obtained by CO2-pneumoperitoneum, blood flow (microcirculation) was deprived and moderate signs of impaired splanchnic metabolism were recorded.

Conclusions: The model appears usable for studies of splanchnic metabolic consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
eJManager LLC Publishing, 2013
Keywords
intra-abdominal hypertension, microdialysis, laser-doppler flowmetry, lactates, pyruvates, glycerol
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34964 (URN)10.5455/aces.20130118045113 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Hörer, T., Skoog, P., Norgren, L., Magnuson, A., Berggren, L., Jansson, K. & Larzon, T. (2013). Intra-peritoneal microdialysis and intra-abdominal pressure after endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 45(6), 596-606
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra-peritoneal microdialysis and intra-abdominal pressure after endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms
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2013 (English)In: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, ISSN 1078-5884, E-ISSN 1532-2165, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 596-606Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate intra-peritoneal (ip) microdialysis after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) in patients developing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), requiring abdominal decompression.

Design: Prospective study.

Material and methods: A total of 16 patients with rAAA treated with an emergency EVAR were followed up hourly for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), urine production and ip lactate, pyruvate, glycerol and glucose by microdialysis, analysed only at the end of the study. Abdominal decompression was performed on clinical criteria, and decompressed (D) and non-decompressed (ND) patients were compared.

Results: The ip lactate/pyruvate (l/p) ratio was higher in the D group than in the ND group during the first five postoperative hours (mean 20 vs. 12), p = 0.005 and at 1 h prior to decompression compared to the fifth hour in the ND group (24 vs. 13), p = 0.016. Glycerol levels were higher in the D group during the first postoperative hours (mean 274.6 vs. 121.7 mu M), p = 0.022. The IAP was higher only at 1 h prior to decompression in the D group compared to the ND group at the fifth hour (mean 19 vs. 14 mmHg).

Conclusions: lp l/p ratio and glycerol levels are elevated immediately postoperatively in patients developing IAH leading to organ failure and subsequent abdominal decompression.

Keywords
Ruptured aortic aneurysm, Intra-abdominal hypertension, Metabolism, Microdialysis, Lactate, Pyruvate, Glycerol
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30189 (URN)10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.03.002 (DOI)000320745100012 ()
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2018-05-19Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, T. B., Larzon, T., Arfvidsson, B., Tidefelt, U., Axelsson, C.-G., Jurstrand, M. & Norgren, L. (2012). Adverse events during treatment limb ischemia with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell implant. International Journal of Angiology, 31(1), 77-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse events during treatment limb ischemia with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell implant
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Angiology, ISSN 0392-9590, E-ISSN 1827-1839, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Trials have reported clinical improvement and reduced need for amputation in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients receiving therapeutic angiogenesis with stem cells. Our objective was to test peripheral stem cell therapy efficacy and safety to gain experiences for further work.

Methods: We included nine CLI patients (mean age 76.7 ±9.7). Stem cells were mobilized to the peripheral blood by administration of G-CSF (Filgrastim) for 4 days, and were collected on day five, when 30 mL of a stem cell suspension was injected into 40 points of the limb. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by assessing pain relief, wound healing and changes in ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Local metabolic and inflammatory changes were measured with microdialysis, growth factors and cytokine level determination. Patients were followed for 24 weeks.

Results: Four patients experienced some degree of improvement with pain relief and/or improved wound healing and ABI increase. One patient was lost to follow up due to chronic psychiatric illness; one was amputated after two weeks. Two patients had a myocardial infarction (MI), one died. One patient died from a massive mesenteric thrombosis after two weeks and one died from heart failure at week 11. Improved patients showed variable effects in cytokine-, growth factor- and local metabolic response.

Conclusion: Even with some improvement in four patients, severe complications in four out of nine patients, and two in relation to the bone marrow stimulation, made us terminate the study prematurely. We conclude that with the increased risk and the reduced potential of the treatment, peripheral blood stem cell treatment in the older age group is less appropriate. Metabolic and inflammatory response may be of value to gain insight into mechanisms and possibly to evaluate effects of therapeutic angiogenesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Turin, Italy: Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Clinical Medicine
Research subject
Medicine; Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-22554 (URN)000301822400011 ()22330628 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84858858355 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2012-04-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Mayer, D., Aeschbacher, S., Pfammatter, T., Veith, F. J., Norgren, L., Magnuson, A., . . . Larzon, T. (2012). Complete replacement of open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms by endovascular aneurysm repair: a two-center 14-year experience. Annals of Surgery, 256(5), 688-696
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complete replacement of open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms by endovascular aneurysm repair: a two-center 14-year experience
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2012 (English)In: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140, Vol. 256, no 5, p. 688-696Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To present the combined 14-year experience of 2 university centers performing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on 100% of noninfected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) over the last 32 months.

Background: : Endovascular aneurysm repair for RAAA feasibility is reported to be 20% to 50%, and EVAR for RAAA has been reported to have better outcomes than open repair.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively gathered data on 473 consecutive RAAA patients (Zurich, 295; Örebro, 178) from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, treated by an "EVAR-whenever-possible" approach until April 2009 (EVAR/OPEN period) and thereafter according to a "100% EVAR" approach (EVAR-ONLY period).Straightforward cases were treated by standard EVAR. More complex RAAA were managed during EVAR-ONLY with adjunctive procedures in 17 of 70 patients (24%): chimney, 3; open iliac debranching, 1; coiling, 8; onyx, 3; and chimney plus onyx, 2.

Results: Since May 2009, all RAAA but one have been treated by EVAR (Zurich, 31; Örebro, 39); 30-day mortality for EVAR-ONLY was 24% (17 of 70). Total cohort mortality (including medically treated patients) for EVAR/OPEN was 32.8% (131 of 400) compared with 27.4% (20 of 73) for EVAR-ONLY (P = 0.376). During EVAR/OPEN, 10% (39 of 400) of patients were treated medically compared with 4% (3 of 73) of patients during EVAR-ONLY. In EVAR/OPEN, open repair showed a statistically significant association with 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.5; P = 0.004). For patients with no abdominal decompression, there was a higher mortality with open repair than EVAR (adjusted OR = 5.6; 95% CI, 1.9-16.7). In patients with abdominal decompression by laparotomy, there was no difference in mortality (adjusted OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.3-3.7).

Conclusions: The "EVAR-ONLY" approach has allowed EVAR treatment of nearly all incoming RAAA with low mortality and turndown rates. Although the observed association of a higher EVAR mortality with abdominal decompression needs further study, our results support superiority and more widespread adoption of EVAR for the treatment of RAAA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
Keywords
Abdominal compartment syndrome, abdominal decompression, chimney graft, debranching, endovascular repair, open abdomen treatment, open repair, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26548 (URN)10.1097/SLA.0b013e318271cebd (DOI)000311223300006 ()23095611 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84872026584 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-11-29 Created: 2012-11-29 Last updated: 2018-05-10Bibliographically approved
Hörer, T. M., Norgren, L. & Jansson, K. (2010). Complications but not obesity or diabetes mellitus have impact on the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio measured by microdialysis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 45(1), 115-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complications but not obesity or diabetes mellitus have impact on the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio measured by microdialysis
2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Studies have shown a higher risk of postoperative complications in diabetic and obese patients. An increased intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio as measured by microdialysis has been reported before postoperative complications have been discovered. It is not known whether diabetes or obesity have any influence on the intraperitoneal metabolism (lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose, glycerol) in relation to major abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the postoperative intraperitoneal and subcutaneous carbohydrate and fat metabolism as measured by microdialysis in obese and diabetic patients after major abdominal surgery without postoperative complications.

Material and methods: Seven obese patients (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) and six diabetic but non-obese patients were studied up to 48 h after major abdominal surgery and were compared with 31 non-diabetic, non-obese patients, all without complications. Microdialysis was performed to measure glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol intraperitoneally and subcutaneously. The lactate/pyruvate ratio was calculated.

Results: The lactate/pyruvate ratio did not differ between the groups. In the diabetic patients, glucose levels were higher intraperitoneally at both Days 1 and 2 compared to controls. Higher glycerol levels were found subcutaneously in obese patients at Day 2. CONCLUSIONS: The lactate/pyruvate ratio does not increase intraperitoneally after non-complicated major abdominal surgery in diabetic and obese patients. Obese patients have increased release of free fatty acids and glycerol subcutaneously, while diabetic patients show higher glucose levels intraperitoneally than controls.

Keywords
Diabetes, glucose, glycerol, intraperitoneal microdialysis, lactate/pyruvate ratio, obesity
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Medical and Health Sciences Surgery
Research subject
Medicine; Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11986 (URN)10.3109/00365520903386713 (DOI)000274344000016 ()19961346 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-10-04 Created: 2010-10-04 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Liapis, C. D., Bell, P. R., Mikhailidis, D., Sivenius, J., Nicolaides, A., Fernandes e Fernandes, J., . . . Norgren, L. (2009). ESVS guidelines: Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 37(4, Suppl 1), S1-S19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ESVS guidelines: Invasive treatment for carotid stenosis: indications, techniques
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2009 (English)In: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, ISSN 1078-5884, E-ISSN 1532-2165, Vol. 37, no 4, Suppl 1, p. S1-S19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Society for Vascular Surgery brought together a group of experts in the field of carotid artery disease to produce updated guidelines for the invasive treatment of carotid disease. The recommendations were rated according to the level of evidence. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is recommended in symptomatic patients with >50% stenosis if the perioperative stroke/death rate is <6% [A], preferably within 2 weeks of the patient's last symptoms [A]. CEA is also recommended in asymptomatic men <75 years old with 70-99% stenosis if the perioperative stroke/death risk is <3% [A]. The benefit from CEA in asymptomatic women is significantly less than in men [A]. CEA should therefore be considered only in younger, fit women [A]. Carotid patch angioplasty is preferable to primary closure [A]. Aspirin at a dose of 75-325 mg daily and statins should be given before, during and following CEA. [A] Carotid artery stenting (CAS) should be performed only in high-risk for CEA patients, in high-volume centres with documented low peri-operative stroke and death rates or inside a randomized controlled trial [C]. CAS should be performed under dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel [A]. Carotid protection devices are probably of benefit [C].

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Surgery
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12073 (URN)10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.11.006 (DOI)19286127 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-10-05 Created: 2010-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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