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Schaffer, C., Eksvärd, K. & Björklund, J. (2019). Can Agroforestry Grow beyond Its Niche and Contribute to a Transition towards Sustainable Agriculture in Sweden?. Sustainability, 11(13), Article ID 3522.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can Agroforestry Grow beyond Its Niche and Contribute to a Transition towards Sustainable Agriculture in Sweden?
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 13, article id 3522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agroforestry is thought to be an approach that could support agriculture in the transition from a system with sustainability problems to one containing regenerative activities contributing to viable ecosystems and, therefore, sustainability solutions. A transdisciplinary and participatory action research (PAR) group that included farmers approached the development of temperate agroforestry systems in the modern agricultural setting of Sweden through practical experience on 12 farms for collective analysis. The objective was to research potential systems such as edible forest gardens, silvopasture and silvoarable systems to discuss their use and effects as well as scaling possibilities. Knowledge and experiences of challenges and solutions related to the development of agroforestry were identified at both niche and regime levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
agroforestry, temperate, agroecology, participatory action research, transition, niche innovation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75731 (URN)10.3390/su11133522 (DOI)000477051900027 ()2-s2.0-85068800396 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Ekhagastiftelsen grant  2011-14

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Björklund, J., Eksvärd, K. & Schaffer, C. (2019). Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a participatory action research project in Sweden. Agroforestry Systems, 93(3), 1107-1118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a participatory action research project in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 1107-1118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, highincome countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local selfsufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Agroforestry, Temperate climate, Sustainable food production, Design, Species composition, Multi-strata production
National Category
Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66491 (URN)10.1007/s10457-018-0208-8 (DOI)000467900200028 ()2-s2.0-85042090543 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Ekhagastiftelsen 

Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, E., Hammer, M. & Björklund, J. (2017). Managing conflicting goals in pig farming: farmers’ strategies and perspectives on sustainable pig farming in Sweden. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 15(6), 693-707
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing conflicting goals in pig farming: farmers’ strategies and perspectives on sustainable pig farming in Sweden
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, ISSN 1473-5903, E-ISSN 1747-762X, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 693-707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial meat production has several negative environmental effects. Governments’ agricultural policies aim for cost efficiency combined with high environmental and animal welfare, which puts farmers in a difficult situation trying to navigate between sometimes contradictory requirements. This paper studies how Swedish pig farmers resolve or cope with conflicting goals in pig farming. We have analysed the regulations governing EU and Swedish pig farming. We have also interviewed five Swedish pig farmers about their views of the different goals of pig farming and strategies for resolving conflicts between the goals of low environmental impact, high animal welfare and enough profitability to continue farming. The greatest divide was between the conventional farmers, who emphasized natural resource efficiency, and the organic farmers who stressed animal welfare, multifunctionality and ecosystem service delivery. We suggest four strategies to contribute to resolving some of the conflicting goals: improve communication about different types of pig farming; use public procurement as a driver towards more sustainable pork production; work towards improving the Common Agricultural Policy, perhaps by implementing payments for ecosystem services or multifunctionality; and finally, decrease the total production of pork to lower the emissions per land unit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
Sustainable agriculture; multifunctional agriculture; ecosystem services; strategies for change
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63358 (URN)10.1080/14735903.2017.1399514 (DOI)000418934400006 ()2-s2.0-85033720095 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies

Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Björklund, J. (2016). Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-2016. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-2016
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet, 2016. p. 18
National Category
Social Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63361 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Eksvärd, K., Björklund, J., Danielsson, M., Eksvärd, J., Hansdotter, E., Holmdahl, J., . . . von Bothmer, H. (2016). Mångfunktionella, lokala odlingssystem: Etablering av modern agroforestry i Sverige 2012-2016. Örebro: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mångfunktionella, lokala odlingssystem: Etablering av modern agroforestry i Sverige 2012-2016
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2016 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2016. p. 74
Keywords
Agroforestry, deltagardriven forskning, skogsträdgård, silvopasture, ekosystemtjänster
National Category
Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53153 (URN)978-91-87789-09-0 (ISBN)
Funder
Ekhaga Foundation
Available from: 2016-10-21 Created: 2016-10-21 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Björklund, J. & Morfeldt, P. (2015). Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­6. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­6
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet, 2015. p. 18
National Category
Social Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63359 (URN)
Projects
Hållbara måltider i Örebro län
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Belfrage, K., Björklund, J. & Salomonsson, L. (2015). Effects of farm size and on-farm landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity-case study of twelve farms in a swedish landscape. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(2), 170-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of farm size and on-farm landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity-case study of twelve farms in a swedish landscape
2015 (English)In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 170-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study in Sweden, six small (<50 ha) and six large farms (>135 ha) participated. The aims of the study were to a) measure differences between small and large farms regarding on-farm landscape heterogeneity, and b) evaluate relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity, measured as numbers of breeding bird species, bird territories, butterflies, bumblebees, and herbaceous plant species. Sample area of the same size, placed on each farm, was used for the biodiversity assessments and on-farm landscape heterogeneity studies. On-farm landscape heterogeneity was classified with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Linear regression was applied to analyze relationships between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity indicators. Multivariate regression was used to analyze relations between single bird species and specific on-farm habitats. Small farms had significantly higher on-farm landscape heterogeneity than large farms. Strong positive relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and number of breeding birds, butterflies, and herbaceous plant species were found. Total on-farm landscape heterogeneity seems to be more important for bird diversity than do specific landscape elements. The study indicates that, to increase biodiversity, farm size should be taken into consideration.

Keywords
agriculture, farm size, landscape, heterogeneity, habitat, biodiversity
National Category
Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-40152 (URN)10.1080/21683565.2014.967437 (DOI)000346056900004 ()2-s2.0-84919725559 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Ekhaga Foundation

Ebba and Sven Schwartz Foundation

Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Björklund, J., Eksvärd, K. & Schaffer, C. (2014). Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores. In: Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim (Ed.), Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies. Paper presented at The 11th European IFSA Group Symposium, 1-4 April 2014, Berlin, Germany (pp. 112-113). IFSA Europe, Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores
2014 (English)In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, IFSA Europe, Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin , 2014, p. 112-113Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IFSA Europe, Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2014
Keywords
Edible forest gardens, participatory learning and action research (PLAR), sustainable agriculture, transdisciplinary research
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36403 (URN)
Conference
The 11th European IFSA Group Symposium, 1-4 April 2014, Berlin, Germany
Projects
Hållbar livsmedelsproduktion - att odla och äta från perenna system
Note

Forskningsfinansiär: Ekhagastiftelsen

Available from: 2014-09-04 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Björklund, J. (2014). Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling. Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro, Sweden: Örebro universitet, 2014. p. 18
National Category
Social Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63360 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Ahnström, J., Bengtsson, J., Berg, Å., Hallgren, L., Boonstra, W. J. & Björklund, J. (2013). Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields. International Journal of Ecology, Article ID 617352.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, article id 617352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013
National Category
Agricultural and Veterinary sciences Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36411 (URN)10.1155/2013/617352 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879400088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8503-0118

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