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Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans. Environment International, 51, 8-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compound to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
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2013 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 51, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in biological compartments have been known for some time but their transport routes and distribution patterns are not properly elucidated. The opinions diverge whether the exposure of the general population occurs indirect through precursors or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed that ski wax technicians are exposed to levels up to 92 000 ng/m(3) of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) via air and have elevated blood levels of PFCAs. Blood samples were collected in 2007-2011 and analyzed for C(4)-C(18) PFCAs, 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs) and 3:3, 5:3 and 7:3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) using UPLC-MS/MS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in levels ranging from 1.90 to 628 ng/mL whole blood (wb). Metabolic intermediates 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTUCAs showed maximum levels of 0.07, 0.64 and 0.11 ng/mL wb. Also, for the first time levels of PFHxDA and PFOcDA were detected in the human blood at mean concentrations up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb respectively. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs and FTOH metabolites in blood from ski wax technicians.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Chemical Sciences Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28803 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2012.09.001 (DOI)000314618100002 ()23138016 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84868330094 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Cancer and Allergy Foundation 

Available from: 2013-04-24 Created: 2013-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Russell, M. H., Nilsson, H. & Buck, R. C. (2013). Elimination kinetics of perfluorohexanoic acid in humans and comparison with mouse, rat and monkey. Chemosphere, 93(10), 2419-2425
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elimination kinetics of perfluorohexanoic acid in humans and comparison with mouse, rat and monkey
2013 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 2419-2425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major fluorinated chemical manufacturers have developed new short-chain per- and polyfluorinated substances with more favorable environmental, health and safety profiles. This study provides the first evaluation of the elimination half-life of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFH)(A) from the blood of humans. PFHxA biomonitoring data were obtained from a recently published study of professional ski wax technicians. These data were analyzed to provide estimates of the apparent half-life of PFHxA from humans, and comparisons were made with kinetic studies of PFHxA elimination from mice, rats and monkeys. The apparent elimination half-life of PFHxA in highly exposed humans ranged between 14 and 49 d with a geomean of 32 d. The half-lives of PFHxA in mice, rats, monkeys and humans were proportional to body weight with no differences observed between genders, indicating similar volumes of distribution and similar elimination mechanisms among mammalian species. Compared to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acid analogs, PFHxA is rapidly cleared from biota. The consistent weight-normalized elimination half-lives for PFHxA in mammalian species indicates that results obtained from animal models are suitable for establishment of PFHxA benchmark dose and reference dose hazard endpoints for use in human risk assessments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxA, Half-life, Clearance, Human, Mammals
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32927 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.060 (DOI)000327566600028 ()
Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2013). Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions. Environmental science. Processes & impacts, 15(4), 814-822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
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2013 (English)In: Environmental science. Processes & impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 814-822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8: 2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per-and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mu g m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 mg m(-3) (mean = 114 mu g m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 mu g m(-3) (mean = 0.53 mu g m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (<30 ng m(-3)) levels. FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed an average level of 12 mu g m(-3) (range = 1.2-47 mu g m(-3)). The ski waxers' exposure to paraffin fumes and PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28912 (URN)10.1039/c3em30739e (DOI)000316869900013 ()
Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Salihovic, S., Nilsson, H., Hagberg, J. & Lindström, G. (2013). Trends in the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood. TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 46, 129-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood
2013 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The general demands on analytical practices in laboratories involved in monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood in the context of the Stockholm Convention are met by the validated analytical procedures applied in most laboratories today. At the same time, as the concentrations of many of the legacy POPs are decreasing in the general populations, more specific, sensitive, and accurate analytical techniques are required. Thus, a challenge for the Stockholm Convention is the analytical capacity, in terms of quality and availability worldwide, to monitor declining concentrations of POPs in human blood. However, other POP issues (e.g., those targeted by epidemiological studies) might require different information and therefore more specialized analytical procedures having greater instrumental sensitivity.

We review current and emerging analytical procedures used for analysis of the chlorinated, brominated, and fluorinated classes of POPs in human blood with a focus on the compounds included in the Stockholm Convention. In general, analytical trends in sample clean-up, separation, detection techniques and quality protocols provide a tool for POP laboratories to measure POPs in human blood. Techniques based on established mass-selective instruments are most commonly employed but declining concentrations in humans in the future might require more selective, more sensitive techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxon, UK: Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Gas chromatography (GC), High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), Human blood, Liquid chromatography (LC), Organochlorine (OC) pesticide, Perfluoroalkylated substance (PFAS), Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), Polychlorinated diphenyl ether (PBDE), Stockholm Convention
National Category
Chemical Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29858 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2012.06.009 (DOI)000319087800027 ()2-s2.0-84876816513 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-06-28 Created: 2013-06-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H. (2012). Occupational exposure to fluorinated ski wax. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational exposure to fluorinated ski wax
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) are used in the production of ski wax to reduce the friction between the snow and the ski. In this occupational study of ski wax technicians’ exposure to PFAS and particulate aerosol we have collected whole blood (wb) (n =94), air (n =84) and aerosol (n =159) samples at World Cup events from 2007-2011.

We have analysed the blood, air and aerosol with respect to 13 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), 3 fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), 3 fluorotelomer acids (FTCAs) and 3 unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (FTUCAs). Further, we assessed the exposure to 3 particulate aerosol fractions (inhalable, respirable and total aerosol) in air.

In comparison to a general population, several of the PFCA blood levels are elevated in the technicians’, primarily  erfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononate (PFNA) with concentrations up to 628 and 163 ng/mL wb, respectively. Further,  we detected FTUCAs and FTCAs in the blood, suggesting biotransformation of FTOHs to PFCAs. The metabolites 5:3 and 7:3 FTCA were detected in all blood samples at levels up to 6.1 and 3.9 ng/mL wb. Levels of perfluorohexadecanoic acid PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were detected in the technician’s blood at mean concentration up to 4.22 ng/mL wb and 4.25 ng/mL wb.

The FTOH levels in air of the wax cabin during work ranged up to 997 000 ng/m3 (average=114 000 ng/m3 ) and PFOA up to 4 890 ng/m3 (average= 526 ng/m3 . FTOHs were not detected in aerosols but PFOA showed average levels of 12 000 ng/m3 (range=1 230- 46 900 ng/m3 ).

The occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m3 was exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with aerosol  concentrations up to 15 mg/m3 . Keywords : Perfluorinated, polyfluorinated, FIS, occupational exposure, ski wax,  iotransformation, metabolism, fluorotelomer alcohol, fluorotelomer acid, aerosol, dust, UPLC/MS-MS, GC/MS-MS

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2012. p. 73
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 11
Keywords
Perfluorinated, polyfluorinated, FIS, occupational exposure, ski wax, biotransformation, metabolism, fluorotelomer alcohol, fluorotelomer acid, aerosol, dust, UPLC/MS-MS, GC/MS-MS
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-24289 (URN)978-91-7668-887-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, Hörsal P2, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Falultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2012-08-07 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Ericson Jogsten, I., Nilsson, H., Nadal, M., Bigas, E., Llebaria, X., van Bavel, B. & Domingo, J. (2011). Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain. Paper presented at 31st International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dioxin 2011, Brussels, Belgium, August 21-25, 2011. Organohalogen Compounds, 73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain
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2011 (English)In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eco-Informa Press, 2011
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65523 (URN)
Conference
31st International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants, Dioxin 2011, Brussels, Belgium, August 21-25, 2011
Available from: 2018-03-06 Created: 2018-03-06 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Westberg, H., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B. & Lindström, G. (2010). A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(6), 2150-2155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 2150-2155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A time trend study focusing on ski waxing technicians' exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) from fluorinated wax fumes was performed in 2007/2008. Levels of eight perfluorocarboxylates and three perfluorosulfonates were analyzed in monthly blood samples from eight technicians, Samples were collected before the ski season, i.e., preseason, then at four AS World Cup competitions in cross country skiing, and finally during an unexposed 5-month postseason period. The perfluorinated carboxylates perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) bioaccumulate, and continued exposure may contribute to elevated levels in ski technicians compared to the general population. The wax technicians' median blood level of PFOA is 112 ng/mL compared to 2.5 ng/mL in the general Swedish population. A significant correlation was found between number of working years and levels of perfluorocarboxylates. The PFOA levels in three technicians with "low" initial levels of PFOA (< 10.0 ng/mL in preseason blood) increased by 254, 134, and 120%, whereas five technicians with "high" initial levels (> 100 ng/mL in preseason sample) were at steady state. PFHxA is suggested to have a short half-life in humans relative the other perfluorocarboxylates. The levels of perfluorosulfonates were unaffected by the wax exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12995 (URN)10.1021/es9034733 (DOI)000275325600044 ()20158198 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77949394533 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H. (2010). Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(19), 7717-7722
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 19, p. 7717-7722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2010
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12870 (URN)10.1021/es101951t (DOI)000282209700086 ()2-s2.0-77957363918 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency: Cancer and Allergy Foundation; Swedish Winter sport Research Center at Mid Sweden University

Available from: 2011-01-05 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G. & Westberg, H.Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humans.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotransformation of fluorotelomer compund to perfluorocarboxylates in humans
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25984 (URN)
Note

Under review in Environmental International 2012-08-14.

Available from: 2012-09-24 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Kärrman, A., Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Lindström, G., Bryngelsson, I.-L. & Westberg, H.Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25986 (URN)
Note

Submitted to Journal of Environmental monitoring, 2012-08-16.

Available from: 2012-09-24 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3722-4633

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