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Andersson, Helena
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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Andersson, H., Karlsen, A., Blomhoff, R., Raastad, T. & Kadi, F. (2010). Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players. British Journal of Nutrition, 104(10), 1492-1499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
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2010 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 10, p. 1492-1499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90 min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n 8) trained for 1 h at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training), while the passive group rested (n 8). Blood samples were taken before the games; immediately after the games; 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game; and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker GSSG increased by the same extent after both the games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione and uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power increased immediately after both the games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols and ascorbic acid (AA) increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, AA and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h, and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary antioxidant defence, but not the endogenous antioxidant defence, is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010
Keywords
Intermittent exercise, Training, Recovery, Free radicals, Football
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12838 (URN)10.1017/S0007114510002394 (DOI)000284034900011 ()20609267 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78650048261 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Bøhn, S. K., Raastad, T., Paulsen, G., Blomhoff, R. & Kadi, F. (2010). Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(5), 740-747
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
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2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
Keywords
Inflammation, intermittent exercise, active recovery, chemokines, training
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00989.x (DOI)000281666200006 ()19765242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956495319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Randers, M. B., Heiner-Møller, A., Krustrup, P. & Mohr, M. (2010). Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(4), 912-919
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 912-919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p < 0.05) in INT compared with DOM. More (p < 0.05) HIR was covered in INT than DOM during first and second half. Additionally, more (p < 0.05) sprinting occurred in INT compared with DOM in the first half. In both game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p < 0.05) in the last 15-minute period compared with the first four 15-minute periods of the game. The midfielders covered longer (p < 0.05) distances with HIR in INT than in DOM over the entire game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010
Keywords
Match analysis, intermittent exercise, standard of play, fatigue
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10877 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d09f21 (DOI)000276631400004 ()20300037 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77950644936 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-01 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Karlsen, A., Blomhoff, R., Raastad, T. & Kadi, F. (2010). Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(4), 600-608
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
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2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
Keywords
d-ROMs, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, polyphenols, intermittent exercise, endurance training
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10875 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00987.x (DOI)000279905400008 ()19706000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77955127862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M. (2010). The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training. (Doctoral dissertation). Örebro: Örebro universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Female soccer is becoming more popular and professional in the world. There are, however, limited scientific data available on how elite female players respond to physical stress during soccer games. An effective recovery strategy following a game is important, because there are few recovery days between the games in international tournaments. The present thesis, which was designed to mirror a competitive situation, aimed to investigate changes in several physiological systems occurring in female elite players in response to two soccer games. It also aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery training on the recovery of several physiological systems. METHODS: Two elite female soccer teams played two 90-min games separated by 72 h active or passive recovery. The active recovery training (cycling at 60% HRpeak, resistance training at <50% 1RM) lasted one hour and was performed 22 and 46 h after the first game. Countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint time and isokinetic knee strength were measured before, immediately, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after the first game, and immediately after the second game. The physical stress markers (CK, urea), oxidative stress markers (e.g., GSSG, lipid peroxidation), endogenous (e.g., UA, thiols) and dietary antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols, carotenoids) and a large battery of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) were analysed in blood. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the performance parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidant levels or inflammatory response between the active and passive recovery groups. Sprint and isokinetic knee strength were reduced by the same extent after both games. CMJ decreased after the first game and remained reduced throughout the study period. Blood physical stress markers, GSSG and endogenous antioxidants increased with similar amplitude after both games together with unchanged lipid peroxidation. The dietary antioxidants showed either a rapid and persistent change (e.g., tocopherols) or a delayed rise (carotenoids) after the first game. A transient increase occurred in several pro- (e.g., IL-12, TNF-a, MCP-1), anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, INF-a) and mixed (IL-6) cytokines after the first game. Fewer cytokines increased in response to the second game. CONCLUSION: Two repeated elite female soccer games separated by 72 h induced similar acute changes in several physiological parameters. After the first game, differences in the recovery pattern of the neuromuscular parameters occurred. In particular, the slow recovery of CMJ indicates that special attention should be devoted to the training of explosive force. Furthermore, the recruitment of antioxidants in response to the transient increase in GSSG resulted in the maintenance of the redox-balance in female players. Similarly, a strong and balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurred after one single female soccer game. The consequences of the dampened cytokine response during repeated soccer games are, however, unknown. In general, the majority of the parameters had recovered prior to the second game and the physiological alterations induced by the first game did not affect the performance of players in the second game. Finally, active recovery training conducted after a soccer game does not accelerate the recovery time for neuromuscular, oxidative stress, antioxidant and inflammatory responses in elite female players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2010. p. 70
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535 ; 8
Keywords
Football, Training, Recovery, Intermittent exercise
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10878 (URN)978-91-7668-735-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-09-10, Hörsal G, Örebro Universitet, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Ekblom, B. & Krustrup, P. (2008). Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(2), 113-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions
2008 (English)In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 113-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5027 (URN)10.1080/02640410701422076 (DOI)17852688 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Andersson, H. M., Kirkendal, D. & Bangsbo, J. (2008). Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(2), 341-349
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 341-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We sought to study the physical demands and match performance of women soccer players. Nineteen top-class and 15 high-level players were individually videotaped in competitive matches, and time-motion analysis were performed. The players changed locomotor activity >1,300 times in a game corresponding to every ~4 seconds and covered 9-11 km in total. The top-class players ran 28% longer (P < 0.05) at high intensities than high-level players (1.68 +/- 0.09 and 1.33 +/- 0.10 km, respectively) and sprinted 24% longer (P < 0.05). The top-class group had a decrease (P < 0.05) of 25-57% in high intensity running in the final 15 minutes compared with the first four 15-minutes intervals, whereas the high-level group performed less (P < 0.05) high-intensity running in the last 15 minutes of each half in comparison with the 2 previous 15-minute periods in the respective half. Peak distance covered by high intensity running in a 5-minute interval was 33% longer (P < 0.05) for the top-class players than the high-level players. In the following 5 minutes immediately after the peak interval top-class players covered 17% less (P < 0.05) high-intensity running than the game average. Defenders performed fewer (P < 0.05) intervals of high-intensity running than midfielders and attackers, as well as fewer (P < 0.05) sprints than the attackers. In conclusion, for women soccer players (1) top-class international players perform more intervals of high-intensity running than elite players at a lower level, (2) fatigue develops temporarily during and towards the end of a game, and (3) defenders have lower work rates than midfielders and attackers. The difference in high-intensity running between the 2 levels demonstrates the importance of intense intermittent exercise for match performance in women soccer. Thus, these aspects should be trained intensively in women soccer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2008
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5026 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0b013e318165fef6 (DOI)18550946 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Raastad, T., Nilsson, J., Paulsen, G., Garthe, I. & Kadi, F. (2008). Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(2), 372-380
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
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2008 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5025 (URN)10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497 (DOI)18202563 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Mascher, H., Andersson, H. M., Nilsson, P.-A., Ekblom, B. & Blomstrand, E. (2007). Changes in signalling pathways regulating protein synthesis in human muscle in the recovery period after endurance exercise. Acta Physiologica, 191(1), 67-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in signalling pathways regulating protein synthesis in human muscle in the recovery period after endurance exercise
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2007 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 191, no 1, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: Exercise induced alterations in the rate of muscle protein synthesis may be related to activity changes in signalling pathways involved in protein synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such changes in enzyme phosphorylation occur after endurance exercise. METHODS: Six male subjects performed ergometer cycling exercise for 1 h at 75% of the maximal oxygen uptake. Muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were taken before, immediately after, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after exercise for the determination of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase 3 kinase (GSK-3), p70S6 kinase (p70(S6k)) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation. RESULTS: The phosphorylation of Akt was unchanged directly after exercise, but two- to fourfold increased 1 and 2 h after the exercise, whereas GSK-3alpha and beta phosphorylation were two- to fourfold elevated throughout most of the 3-h recovery period. Phosphorylation of mTOR was elevated threefold directly after, 30 min and 2 h after exercise and eEF2 phosphorylation was decreased by 35-75% from 30 min to 3 h-recovery. Exercise led to a five- to eightfold increase in Ser(424)/Thr(421) phosphorylation of p70(S6k) up to 30 min after exercise, but no change in Thr(389) phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: The marked decrease in eEF2 phosphorylation suggests an activation of translation elongation and possibly protein synthesis in the recovery period after sustained endurance exercise. The lack of p70(S6k) activation suggests that translation initiation is activated via alternative pathways, possibly via the activation of eukaryotic initiating factor 2B.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwel, 2007
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Physiology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5028 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-1716.2007.01712.x (DOI)17488244 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H. M., Karlsen, A., Blomhoff, R., Raastad, T. & Kadi, F.Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

Keywords
Intermittent exercise, training, recovery, free radicals, football
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10881 (URN)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
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