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Westberg, J. (2019). Designing preschools for an independent and social child: visions of preschool space in the Swedish welfare state. Early years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing preschools for an independent and social child: visions of preschool space in the Swedish welfare state
2019 (English)In: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The physical environment in early years education and care is crucial. This paper examines the Swedish government’s vision of preschool design in the welfare state of the 1970s and the conceptions of children and society upon which it was based. Presenting an investigation of reports, booklets, and study materials published by various branches of the central government, this paper analyses an ambitious preschool design intended to provide children with a diverse and stimulating environment that supported their independence and freedom of choice. Unlike similar designs in postwar Europe, this preschool design was not formulated in response to the experiences of the world wars. Inspired by the theories of Piaget and Erikson and based on the rationality of the Swedish welfare state, this preschool design was instead intended to remedy the shortcomings of a perceived anonymous, sterile and barren modern society. In relation to existing research, this paper contributes to the study of the so-called nursery heritage by examining how it was formulated in the setting of the Swedish welfare state. In so doing, the paper also provides ample ground for a continued critical discussion on contemporary strands of neoliberal preschool design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Preschool, early childhood, material culture, space, piaget, history of education, förskolan, materiell kultur, utbildningshistoria
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73972 (URN)10.1080/09575146.2019.1608426 (DOI)000470487800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03542
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. & Cappelli, G. (2019). Divergent paths to mass schooling at Europe’s poles?: Regional differences in Italy and Sweden, 1840-1900. IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, 9(1), 11-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divergent paths to mass schooling at Europe’s poles?: Regional differences in Italy and Sweden, 1840-1900
2019 (English)In: IJHE Bildungsgeschichte, ISSN 2192-4295, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we present a comparative analysis of regional differences in Italy and Sweden in the late 19th century. Using both quantitative and qualitative evidence, our comparison indicates how the character of these regional inequalities differed, despite the decentralized nature of schooling in both of these countries. As a result, this article raises important questions regarding whether these differences may be explained by the demand for schooling, the supply of schooling, or institutional arrangements, including the use of ambulatory schools and so-called junior schools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, 2019
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, skola
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73971 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2019). Review of: UNESCO's Utopia of Lifelong Learning: An Intellectual History [Review]. Historical Studies in Education, 31(1), 143-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of: UNESCO's Utopia of Lifelong Learning: An Intellectual History
2019 (English)In: Historical Studies in Education, ISSN 0843-5057, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 143-145Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian History of Education Association, 2019
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74646 (URN)000468579300020 ()
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). 15 riktlinjer för den offentliga debatten om skolan. Skola och samhälle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>15 riktlinjer för den offentliga debatten om skolan
2018 (Swedish)In: Skola och samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Svensk skoldebatt är så mycket, och ibland kan det kännas som om den är för mycket. I kontrast till eftertänksamma samtal, där man strävar efter att belysa en fråga ur olika synvinklar i syfte att verkligen förstå den, står debattens ofta hysteriska tonläge där olika aktörer beskylls för olika slags felsteg. För de av oss som verkligen är intresserade av att förstå hur vårt skolväsende fungerar, och har fungerat, kan alltså debattklimatet kännas otillfredsställande. Innan jul formulerade jag därför ett antal riktlinjer för en bättre och mer givande debatt. Som ordet antyder, var deras syfte inte att ifrågasätta, argumentera eller tillbakavisa, utan snarare att presentera en vision för hur skoldebatten skulle kunna föras. Dessa riktlinjer är inte utan blinkningar till några av de debattörer som tar stor plats i skoldebatten. Men de är publicerade i all välmening och med gott humör.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Föreningen skola och samhälle, 2018
Keywords
Utbildningshistoria
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65061 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-18 Created: 2018-02-18 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). A Comparative History from Below?: A Local and Mundane International History of Nineteenth Century Schooling. Rivista di storia dell’educazione, 5(2), 111-132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative History from Below?: A Local and Mundane International History of Nineteenth Century Schooling
2018 (English)In: Rivista di storia dell’educazione, ISSN 2384-8294, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an increasingly globalized world, the nineteenth century expansion of mass schooling can no longer be interpreted merely from within a national framework. As a result, vital efforts have been made to investigate and conceptualize the international and transnational histories of schooling. Using the historiography of nine-teenth century schooling as a starting point, this article presents prospects for how these conceptualizations may be further developed employing the notion of a comparative history “from below.” In this article, this notion indicates an analysis that does not take national or supranational entities as the point of departure, but instead promotes a comparative history based on the local level (school districts, municipalities, townships). Consequently, the focus of investigations will shift from national politics, transnational circulation of educa-tional ideas, and international conferences, to the mundane history of schooling, covering issues such as local funding, local school politics, and the practical, and often non-event-worthy, realities of schooling. Although such investigations do not mainly address the oppressed or the marginalized, a comparative history from be-low implies a focus on the ordinary schoolchildren, parents, and teachers, and their schools. What this article consequently proposes is an international history of schooling that is simultaneously local, and a local history of schooling that is simultaneously international.

Abstract [it]

In un mondo sempre più globalizzato, l’espansione dell’istruzione scolastica di massa nel XIX secolo non può più essere interpretata semplicemente all’interno di una cornice di riferimento nazionale. Di conseguenza sono stati fatti importanti tentativi per studiare e concettualizzare le storie internazionali e transnazionali della scuola. Riferendosi alla storiografia sull’istruzione scolastica del XIX secolo come punto di partenza, questo articolo presenta alcune prospettive su come queste concettualizzazioni possa-no essere ulteriormente sviluppate impiegando la nozione di una storia comparativa “dal basso”. In que-sto articolo, questa nozione indica un’analisi che non considera come punto di partenza entità nazionali o sovranazionali, ma promuove invece una storia comparativa basata sul livello locale (distretti scolastici, comuni, municipalità). Il focus delle indagini passerà dunque dalle politiche nazionali, dalla circolazione transnazionale di idee educative e dalle conferenze internazionali, alla semplice storia dell’istruzione scolastica, analizzando tematiche come i finanziamenti locali, la politica scolastica locale e la pratica nelle realtà scolastiche, spesso considerata di poco valore. Quantunque tali indagini non riguardino principalmente oppressi o emarginati, una storia comparativa dal basso implica un focus sull’ordinario: gli scolari, i genitori, gli insegnanti e le loro scuole. Ciò che questo articolo propone è quindi una storia internazionale della scolarizzazione che è allo stesso tempo anche locale, e una storia locale della scola-rizzazione che è contemporaneamente anche internazionale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edizioni ETS, 2018
Keywords
primary school, comparative history, transnational history, social history, history of education, scuola primaria, storia comparata, storia transnazionale, storia sociale, storia dell’educazione
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71068 (URN)10.4454/rse.v5i2.148 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016 05230
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). A conflicted political will to levy local taxes: inequality and local schoolpolitics in Sweden, 1840–1900. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 4(1), 3-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A conflicted political will to levy local taxes: inequality and local schoolpolitics in Sweden, 1840–1900
2018 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Through an extensive study of 12 parishes in the Sundsvall region, this article, informed by studies in the economic history of education, examines changes and continuities in local school politics during the period of 1840–1900. Using the Sundsvall region in the northern part of Sweden as its point of departure, this article shows how basic political conflicts shifted when political franchise, tax regulations and the social structure of the region changed during the second half of the nineteenth century. At the end of the investigated period, the basic conflict of school politics was no longer between those who owned land and those who did not but rather between high- and low-income groups. Judging from local school politics, the local elites of the Sundsvall region, in contrast to local elites in the USA, England, Spain and Prussia, focused their attention on school funding. The main conflicts between the social groups not only concerned the distribution of school expenditures but also included issues, such as the location of schools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
History of education, political voice, local school politics, inequality, local elites
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66826 (URN)10.1080/20020317.2018.1442981 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016- 05230
Available from: 2018-05-01 Created: 2018-05-01 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). A jack of all trades?: Rural teachers’ livelihood diversification and the rise of mass schooling in the nineteenth century Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Seventh Nordic Conference on the History of Education, Trondheim, Norway, September 19-20, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A jack of all trades?: Rural teachers’ livelihood diversification and the rise of mass schooling in the nineteenth century Sweden
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How did teachers make a living for themselves? The purpose of this paper is to examine rural nineteenth century teachers’ livelihood, and more specifically how teachers survived engaging in livelihood diversification or multiple employment. Drawing inspiration from the new social history of livelihood, and using a wide variety of source materials from nineteenth century Sweden, I will show that far from specializing in teaching, teachers were often engaged in multiple occupations still around 1900. I will show how this common practice was discussed, and how teachers work ranged from the encouraged to activities frowned upon, and even included illegal activities. By doing so, I will be able to shed new light on teaching as a profession and occupational title during the nineteenth century, and contribute to the discussion regarding the social and economic position of teacher. By investigating teachers’ livelihood, I will also be able to examine the role of teachers’ multiple occupations in the expansion of mass schooling during the nineteenth century.

Keywords
history of education, livelihood, work
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71078 (URN)
Conference
Seventh Nordic Conference on the History of Education, Trondheim, Norway, September 19-20, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). A school in constant crisis?: The democratization, decentralization and marketization of schooling in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Education in a Democratically Troublesome Time - Threats and Opportunities, Örebro, Sweden, October 30-31, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A school in constant crisis?: The democratization, decentralization and marketization of schooling in Sweden
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
utbildningshistoria
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71080 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Education in a Democratically Troublesome Time - Threats and Opportunities, Örebro, Sweden, October 30-31, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). Adjusting Swedish gymnastics to the female nature: Discrepancies in the gendering of girl’s physical education in the mid-nineteenth century. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 5(1), 261-279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adjusting Swedish gymnastics to the female nature: Discrepancies in the gendering of girl’s physical education in the mid-nineteenth century
2018 (English)In: Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, E-ISSN 2340-7263, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 261-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the nineteenth century, Swedish gymnastics grew to become one of the main models of physical education in the Western world. The purpose of this article is to explore how Swedish gymnastics was adjusted to the female body and mind in the mid-nineteenth century. Using handbooks published by the Swedish educationalist Anton Santesson as an empirical starting point, this article shows how the relationship between gender and gymnastics was complicated and exhibited significant discrepancies. In part, Swedish gymnastics was marked by a one-sex model of gender differences, which meant that gymnastics was perceived as a method for catering to the deficiencies and weaknesses of the feminine nature, in an attempt to make girls and young women more similar to boys. Swedish gymnastics had, nevertheless, vital elements of a two-sex model, according to which gymnastics was supposed to realise the true feminine nature of girls. Following this line of thought, Santesson claimed that, since gymnastics merely followed the laws of the body, it could not make girls more like boys. Santesson’s vision of gymnastics also included disciplinary mechanisms, such as the partitioning of space, which were gender neutral. Apart from presenting insights into the ambiguous and contradictory notions of gender in Swedish girls’ gymnastics, this article thus also raises questions regarding whether other models of physical education were marked by similar discrepancies during the nineteenth century.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Salamanca, Spain: FahrenHouse, 2018
Keywords
Swedish gymnastics; physical education; gender; discipline; history of education
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54893 (URN)10.14516/ete.162 (DOI)000437520200015 ()
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2018-07-27Bibliographically approved
Westberg, J. (2018). Beyond the Educational Visions of the State: The Construction of School Buildings in Rural Nineteenth-Century Sweden. In: Ian Grosvenor, Lisa Rosén Rasmussen (Ed.), Making Education: Material School Design and Educational Governance (pp. 95-117). Cham: Springer Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Educational Visions of the State: The Construction of School Buildings in Rural Nineteenth-Century Sweden
2018 (English)In: Making Education: Material School Design and Educational Governance / [ed] Ian Grosvenor, Lisa Rosén Rasmussen, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, p. 95-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While the architecture, educational ideas and material culture of nineteenth century school buildings have been properly investigated, we know less about the actual processes of designing and building schools. By exploring these processes, this chapter examines how local decision-makers, school designers, builders and workers influenced the dynamics between state governance and school design in Sweden, 1840-1900. The analysis is based on a case study of 66 school building projects in the Sundsvall region, located in northern Sweden.

In this chapter, I will argue that the local design and building processes fundamentally influenced school design. The school districts' organisation promoted low cost alternatives, diversity among school buildings and caused delays; builders and architects adapted schools to the local sense of aesthetics, hygiene and appropriate temperature for classrooms, and the local needs to accommodate the areas’ school aged children in the planned class-rooms; and, not the least, the morals, organisational skills and know-how of builders and building workers marked the varying quality of the school buildings. In comparison with investigations that focused on national building plans, I will thus be able to present a much more complex image of the relationship between state governance and school design, showing, once again, that what you want is not always what you get.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Educational Governance Research, ISSN 2365-9548, E-ISSN 2365-9556 ; 9
Keywords
history of education, school architecture, material culture
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71069 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-97019-6_5 (DOI)978-3-319-97018-9 (ISBN)978-3-319-97019-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3444-952X

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