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Neumann, G., Wall, R., Rangel, I., Marques, T. M. & Repsilber, D. (2018). Qualitative modelling of the interplay of inflammatory status and butyrate in the human gut: a hypotheses about robust bi-stability. BMC Systems Biology, 12(1), Article ID 144.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Qualitative modelling of the interplay of inflammatory status and butyrate in the human gut: a hypotheses about robust bi-stability
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2018 (English)In: BMC Systems Biology, ISSN 1752-0509, E-ISSN 1752-0509, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota interacts with the human gut in multiple ways. Microbiota composition is altered in inflamed gut conditions. Likewise, certain microbial fermentation products as well as the lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane are examples of microbial products with opposing influences on gut epithelium inflammation status. This system of intricate interactions is known to play a core role in human gut inflammatory diseases. Here, we present and analyse a simplified model of bidirectional interaction between the microbiota and the host: in focus is butyrate as an example for a bacterial fermentation product with anti-inflammatory properties.

RESULTS: We build a dynamical model based on an existing model of inflammatory regulation in gut epithelial cells. Our model introduces both butyrate as a bacterial product which counteracts inflammation, as well as bacterial LPS as a pro-inflammatory bacterial product. Moreover, we propose an extension of this model that also includes a feedback interaction towards bacterial composition. The analysis of these dynamical models shows robust bi-stability driven by butyrate concentrations in the gut. The extended model hints towards a further possible enforcement of the observed bi-stability via alteration of gut bacterial composition. A theoretical perspective on the stability of the described switch-like character is discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: Interpreting the results of this qualitative model allows formulating hypotheses about the switch-like character of inflammatory regulation in the gut epithelium, involving bacterial products as constitutive parts of the system. We also speculate about possible explanations for observed bimodal distributions in bacterial compositions in the human gut. The switch-like behaviour of the system proved to be mostly independent of parameter choices. Further implications of the qualitative character of our modeling approach for the robustness of the proposed hypotheses are discussed, as well as the pronounced role of butyrate compared to other inflammatory regulators, especially LPS, NF- κB and cytokines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Bi-stability, Butyrate, Dynamical model, Dysbiosis, Gut microbiome, Inflammation, Short chain fatty acids
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70827 (URN)10.1186/s12918-018-0667-6 (DOI)000453547300001 ()30558589 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058628095 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20110225
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Gorreja, F., Rush, S., Marques, T. M., Repsilber, D., Baker, A., Wall, R. & Brummer, R. J. (2018). The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function. In: : . Paper presented at Food and Inflammation - 2nd Conference of Food Science Sweden, Örebro, Sweden, 21 Nov., 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impacts of probiotics and prebiotics on the gut mucosa and immune system through targeting inflammation and intestinal barrier function
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
Probiotics, Inflammation, Prebiotics, Immune system, Dietary
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Microbiology
Research subject
Molecular Biology; Medicine; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70257 (URN)
Conference
Food and Inflammation - 2nd Conference of Food Science Sweden, Örebro, Sweden, 21 Nov., 2018
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Wall, R., Marques, T., Edebol-Carlman, H., Sundin, J., Vumma, R., Rangel, I. & Brummer, R. J. (2017). Altered expression of membrane transporters in colonic mucosa of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Post-infectious (PI)-IBS compared to healthy subjects. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 29(Suppl. 2), 107-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered expression of membrane transporters in colonic mucosa of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Post-infectious (PI)-IBS compared to healthy subjects
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2017 (English)In: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 29, no Suppl. 2, p. 107-108Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 5%- 15% of adults in the general population, and is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain and discomfort and associated with altered bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and not fully under-stood. Hence, treatment is often based on symptomatology rather than underlying physiological aberrancies.

Objective: To compare the expression of membrane transporters in mucosal biopsies of healthy subjects, IBS patients and post- infectious (PI)- IBS patients.

Methods: Mucosal biopsies were obtained from the unprepared sigmoid colon in 18 IBS patients, 9 PI- IBS patients and 10 healthy subjects. Total RNA was isolated and prepared for gene expression analyses using quantitative reverse- transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT- PCR). We compared the expression of genes encoding membrane- spanning transporters, using GAPDH as a reference gene, and by using the comparative 2- ΔΔCt method.

Results: Colonic expression of SCL7A5 and SLC3A2 (together com-prising the amino acid transporter LAT1+4F2hc) was significantly lower in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy controls (P<.001). The expression of SLC7A8 (LAT2) tended to be lower in IBS patients compared to controls (P=.06). Mucosal gene ex-pression of the short chain fatty acid transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8) was lower in both IBS- patients and PI- IBS patients compared to healthy subjects (P<.01).

Conclusions: The amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 appeared to be affected in IBS patients, but not in PI- IBS patients, compared to healthy subjects, suggesting a possible alteration in amino acids transport in this patient group. Furthermore, our results suggest a lower uptake of short chain fatty acids in both IBS- and PI- IBS pa-tients. Altered expression of these transporters may be involved in the pathophysiology of IBS as well as being a potential biomarker of this aberration, and therefore deserves further study in IBS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60601 (URN)10.1111/nmo.13180 (DOI)000407643600220 ()
Available from: 2017-09-05 Created: 2017-09-05 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Marques, T. M., Holster, S., Wall, R., König, J. & Brummer, R. J. (2016). Correlating the gut microbiome to health and disease. In: Niall Hyland, Catherine Stanton (Ed.), The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota (pp. 261-291). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlating the gut microbiome to health and disease
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2016 (English)In: The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota / [ed] Niall Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Elsevier, 2016, p. 261-291Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of a diverse population of prokaryotes that has a symbiotic relationship with its host; thus it plays a vital role for the host’s health. Our understanding of the effect of the gut microbiome in health and disease has grown substantially over the past 2 decades, mostly because of recent advances in sequencing and other high-throughput technologies. Given its high metabolic potential, close proximity to the intestinal mucosa, and interaction with the immune system, it is not surprising that the gut microbiome is an important partaker in human health. Evidence to the importance of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the growing number of conditions now linked to changes in the resident gut microbiota, including recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, allergies, neurological diseases, and metabolic diseases. Research into this field of the association of the gut microbiome with health and disease continues to expand at a rapid pace as we come to accept the gut microbiome as our “second genome.” Targeting the gut microbiome to restore/modulate its composition with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and even fecal microbiota transplantation is considered a promising future strategy for the development of new solutions in the treatment of various diseases associated with an imbalance in microbiota composition and functioning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Gut microbiota, Immune system-related diseases, Intestinal diseases, Metabolic diseases, Nervous system-related diseases, Therapies for gut microbiota modulation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65939 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-802304-4.00012-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85011779736 (Scopus ID)978-0-12-802304-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Marques, T. M., Patterson, E., Wall, R., O'Sullivan, O., Fitzgerald, G. F., Cotter, P. D., . . . Stanton, C. (2016). Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model. Beneficial Microbes, 7(3), 409-420
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model
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2016 (English)In: Beneficial Microbes, ISSN 1876-2883, E-ISSN 1876-2891, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 409-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (P<0.05), but did not alter other metabolic markers in healthy rats. Diabetes induced by STZ injection decreased body weight (P<0.05), increased intestinal length (P<0.05) and stimulated water and food intake. Insulin was decreased (P<0.05), whereas glucose was increased (P<0.001) in all diabetic groups, compared with non-diabetic controls. A decrease (P<0.01) in glucose levels was observed in diabetic rats receiving L. brevis DPC 6108, compared with diabetic-controls. Both the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota were affected by diabetes. Microbial diversity in diabetic rats supplemented with low GABA was not reduced (P>0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2016
Keywords
Streptozotocin, type-1 diabetes, probiotic, γ-aminobutyric acid
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54343 (URN)10.3920/BM2015.0154 (DOI)000376602400011 ()27013462 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84971645676 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

APC Microbiome Institute 

Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) 

Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Patterson, E., Marques, T. M., O'Sullivan, O., Fitzgerald, P., Fitzgerald, G. F., Cotter, P. D., . . . Ross, R. P. (2015). Streptozotocin-induced type-1-diabetes disease onset in Sprague-Dawley rats is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and decreased diversity. Microbiology, 161(Pt 1), 182-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Streptozotocin-induced type-1-diabetes disease onset in Sprague-Dawley rats is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and decreased diversity
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2015 (English)In: Microbiology, ISSN 1350-0872, E-ISSN 1465-2080, Vol. 161, no Pt 1, p. 182-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing appreciation that microbiota composition can significantly affect host health and play a role in disease onset and progression. This study assessed the impact of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1-diabetes (T1D) on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity in Sprague-Dawley rats, compared with healthy controls over time. T1D was induced by injection of a single dose (60 mg STZ kg(-1)) of STZ, administered via the intraperitoneal cavity. Total DNA was isolated from faecal pellets at weeks 0 (pre-STZ injection), 1, 2 and 4 and from caecal content at week 5 from both healthy and T1D groups. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to investigate intestinal microbiota composition. The data revealed that although intestinal microbiota composition between the groups was similar at week 0, a dramatic impact of T1D development on the microbiota was apparent post-STZ injection and for up to 5 weeks. Most notably, T1D onset was associated with a shift in the Bacteroidetes : Firmicutes ratio (P<0.05), while at the genus level, increased proportions of lactic acid producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were associated with the later stages of T1D progression (P<0.05). Coincidently, T1D increased caecal lactate levels (P<0.05). Microbial diversity was also reduced following T1D (P<0.05). Principle co-ordinate analyses demonstrated temporal clustering in T1D and control groups with distinct separation between groups. The results provide a comprehensive account of how T1D is associated with an altered intestinal microbiota composition and reduced microbial diversity over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: The Microbiology Society, 2015
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65930 (URN)10.1099/mic.0.082610-0 (DOI)000356647700017 ()25370749 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84941736218 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Scheme 

Science Foundation of Ireland, 07/CE/B1368 

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Murphy, E. F., Clarke, S. F., Marques, T. M., Hill, C., Stanton, C., Ross, R. P., . . . Cotter, P. D. (2013). Antimicrobials: Strategies for targeting obesity and metabolic health?. Gut microbes, 4(1), 48-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobials: Strategies for targeting obesity and metabolic health?
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2013 (English)In: Gut microbes, ISSN 1949-0976, E-ISSN 1949-0984, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 48-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obesity is associated with a number of serious health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers among others and has been repeatedly shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality. The relatively recent discovery that the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may affect the risk of developing obesity and related disorders has led to an explosion of interest in this distinct research field. A corollary of these findings would suggest that modulation of gut microbial populations can have beneficial effects with respect to controlling obesity. In this addendum, we summarize our recent data, showing that therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota using different antimicrobial strategies may be a useful approach for the management of obesity and metabolic conditions. In addition, we will explore some of the mechanisms that may contribute to microbiota-induced susceptibility to obesity and metabolic diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Landes Bioscience, 2013
Keywords
Antimicrobials, firmicutes, gut microbiota, metabolic disease, obesity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65931 (URN)10.4161/gmic.22328 (DOI)23018760 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Murphy, E. F., Cotter, P. D., Hogan, A., O'Sullivan, O., Joyce, A., Fouhy, F., . . . Shanahan, F. (2013). Divergent metabolic outcomes arising from targeted manipulation of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity. Gut, 62(2), 220-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divergent metabolic outcomes arising from targeted manipulation of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity
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2013 (English)In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota is an environmental regulator of fat storage and adiposity. Whether the microbiota represents a realistic therapeutic target for improving metabolic health is unclear. This study explored two antimicrobial strategies for their impact on metabolic abnormalities in murine diet-induced obesity: oral vancomycin and a bacteriocin-producing probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 Bac(+)).

DESIGN: Male (7-week-old) C57BL/J6 mice (9-10/group) were fed a low-fat (lean) or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks with/without vancomycin by gavage at 2 mg/day, or with L. salivarius UCC118Bac(+) or the bacteriocin-negative derivative L. salivarius UCC118Bac(-) (each at a dose of 1×10(9) cfu/day by gavage). Compositional analysis of the microbiota was by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing.

RESULTS: Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that vancomycin treatment led to significant reductions in the proportions of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and a dramatic increase in Proteobacteria, with no change in Actinobacteria. Vancomycin-treated high-fat-fed mice gained less weight over the intervention period despite similar caloric intake, and had lower fasting blood glucose, plasma TNFα and triglyceride levels compared with diet-induced obese controls. The bacteriocin-producing probiotic had no significant impact on the proportions of Firmicutes but resulted in a relative increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and a decrease in Actinobacteria compared with the non-bacteriocin-producing control. No improvement in metabolic profiles was observed in probiotic-fed diet-induced obese mice.

CONCLUSION: Both vancomycin and the bacteriocin-producing probiotic altered the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese mice, but in distinct ways. Only vancomycin treatment resulted in an improvement in the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity thereby establishing that while the gut microbiota is a realistic therapeutic target, the specificity of the antimicrobial agent employed is critical.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65932 (URN)10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300705 (DOI)000313264400007 ()22345653 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84872112919 (Scopus ID)
Note

Erratum in Gut. 2013 Feb;62(2):226.

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Marques, T. M., Cryan, J. F., Shanahan, F., Fitzgerald, G. F., Ross, R. P., Dinan, T. G. & Stanton, C. (2013). Gut microbiota modulation and implications for host health: dietary strategies to influence the gut-brain axis. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 22, 239-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gut microbiota modulation and implications for host health: dietary strategies to influence the gut-brain axis
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2013 (English)In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 22, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human intestinal microbiota evolves from an immature and unstable ecosystem during infancy into a more complex and stable ecosystem in adulthood. Diet is one of the main factors contributing to the composition and diversity of the human intestinal microbiota. From birth, breast milk offers the best nutritional regime for maturation of the gut, whereas the introduction of solid food selects the most adapted bacteria, converging towards an adult-like microbiota. The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, influencing the maturation of the immune system and regulating energy metabolism. Moreover, it has become evident that the microbiota can affect brain function and behaviour. On this bidirectional communication between intestine and the central nervous system (CNS), the so called gut-brain axis, the gut influences brain development and biochemistry, whereas the brain affects gastrointestinal function. In this context, probiotics and prebiotics have been used as dietary strategies aimed at improving host health by modulating the gut ecosystem and, consequently, affecting host stress-responses, behaviour and cognition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Microbiota, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Gut–brain axis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Food Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65938 (URN)10.1016/j.ifset.2013.10.016 (DOI)000335108700030 ()2-s2.0-84897037252 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) 

Irish Government's National Development Plan, 07/CE/B1368

Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre (APC)

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Murphy, E. F., Cotter, P. D., Healy, S., Marques, T. M., O'Sullivan, O., Fouhy, F., . . . Shanahan, F. (2010). Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models. Gut, 59(12), 1635-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models
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2010 (English)In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 1635-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased efficiency of energy harvest, due to alterations in the gut microbiota (increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes), has been implicated in obesity in mice and humans. However, a causal relationship is unproven and contributory variables include diet, genetics and age. Therefore, we explored the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet and genetically determined obesity (ob/ob) for changes in microbiota and energy harvesting capacity over time.

METHODS: Seven-week-old male ob/ob mice were fed a low-fat diet and wild-type mice were fed either a low-fat diet or a HF-diet for 8 weeks (n=8/group). They were assessed at 7, 11 and 15 weeks of age for: fat and lean body mass (by NMR); faecal and caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, by gas chromatography); faecal energy content (by bomb calorimetry) and microbial composition (by metagenomic pyrosequencing).

RESULTS: A progressive increase in Firmicutes was confirmed in both HF-fed and ob/ob mice reaching statistical significance in the former, but this phylum was unchanged over time in the lean controls. Reductions in Bacteroidetes were also found in ob/ob mice. However, changes in the microbiota were dissociated from markers of energy harvest. Thus, although the faecal energy in the ob/ob mice was significantly decreased at 7 weeks, and caecal SCFA increased, these did not persist and faecal acetate diminished over time in both ob/ob and HF-fed mice, but not in lean controls. Furthermore, the proportion of the major phyla did not correlate with energy harvest markers.

CONCLUSION: The relationship between the microbial composition and energy harvesting capacity is more complex than previously considered. While compositional changes in the faecal microbiota were confirmed, this was primarily a feature of high-fat feeding rather than genetically induced obesity. In addition, changes in the proportions of the major phyla were unrelated to markers of energy harvest which changed over time. The possibility of microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2010
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65934 (URN)10.1136/gut.2010.215665 (DOI)000284109200009 ()20926643 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-78649887273 (Scopus ID)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), RO1 DK058855
Note

Funding Agencies:

Teagasc (an Agency of the Irish Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food)

Science Foundation Ireland

Alimentary Health Ltd

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8591-0799

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