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Kyvik Nordås, HildegunnORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5944-3768
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Publications (10 of 38) Show all publications
Nordås, H. K. (2019). Frankel and Romer revisited. International Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frankel and Romer revisited
2019 (English)In: International Economics, ISSN 2110-7017Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Frankel and Romer (1999), hereafter FR, proposed an instrument variable for trade intensity to assess robustly the causal impact of international trade on income per person. They generated the instrument by estimating a gravity equation with only exogenous, geography-related explanatory variables on a cross-section from 1985 using ordinary least squares (OLS). This paper revisits the FR study using a new estimation strategy, the Poisson maximum likelihood estimator (PPML), for creating the instrument for 1985. Next, I repeat the IV regressions for 2005 using both OLS and PPML for estimating the instruments. I find that the IV regressions are sensitive to the period, the sample size and the estimation strategy on which the instrument is estimated. OLS based instruments are not significant in IV regressions for 2005, while PPML-based instruments are statistically and economically significant and robust to time, but do not convincingly pass tests for weak instruments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Trade, Economic growth, Instrument variables
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73845 (URN)10.1016/j.inteco.2019.04.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-04-17 Created: 2019-04-17 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H. (2019). Offshoring of services functions and labour market adjustments. Paris: OECD Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offshoring of services functions and labour market adjustments
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

About 40% of employment in manufacturing is in services functions. This paper develops a measure of narrow outsourcing, matching services functions performed by workers inside manufacturing firms to the same services functions provided by outside suppliers. The measure allows us to analyse the competition that, say, workers at the IT services desk in manufacturing firms face from outside IT suppliers. Narrow outsourcing is entered into labour demand functions where labour is broken down on business functions using OECD data combined with the 2016 releases of the World Input Output Database (WIOD). On average, a one percentage point increase in narrow local outsourcing of services reduces manufacturing employment in the same services function by between 1.5% (R&D) and 3% (transport). The impact of offshoring on manufacturing labour demand is small on average, but depends strongly on the complexity of the value chain, the policy environment and technology. Manufacturing employment is more services intensive the longer the value chain. In-house IT functions complement and support offshored IT functions, while offshored R&D functions tend to replace in-house R&D. Tentatively, technology as measured by IT maturity and the length of the value chain is more important for employment in services functions in manufacturing than is offshoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: OECD Publishing, 2019. p. 45
Series
OECD Trace Policy Papers ; 226
Keywords
labour demand, regulation, technology, outsourcing, offshoring, structural changes
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76015 (URN)10.1787/1590079f-en (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H. (2019). Services trade restrictiveness index, methodology and application: The Indian context. In: D. Chakraborty and Nag, B. (Ed.), India's Trade Analytics: Patterns and Opportunities. New Delhi: Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Services trade restrictiveness index, methodology and application: The Indian context
2019 (English)In: India's Trade Analytics: Patterns and Opportunities / [ed] D. Chakraborty and Nag, B., New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2019
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76416 (URN)9789353282752 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-14 Created: 2019-09-14 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H., Lodefalk, M. & Tang, A. (2019). Trade and jobs: a description of Swedish labor market dynamics. Örebro: Örebro University, School of Business
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trade and jobs: a description of Swedish labor market dynamics
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, School of Business, 2019. p. 27
Series
Working Papers, School of Business, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 2/2019
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76016 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Nordås, H. K. (2018). Frankel and Romer revisited. Örebro: Örebro University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frankel and Romer revisited
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Frankel and Romer (1999) proposed an instrument variable for trade intensity to robustly assess the causal impact of international trade on standards of living. The instrument is based on OLS estimates of the gravity equation and has been widely used in the literature. In this note I show that the instrument is unrelated to income in the mid-2000s. Re-estimating the gravity equation using PPML, I show that the resulting instrument is strongly related to GDP per capita, but weakly correlated with trade, suggesting that what is captured may be a direct link between geography and income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 7
Series
Working Papers, School of Business, ISSN 1403-0586 ; 2018:4
Keywords
Trade, economic growth, instrument variables
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73846 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-17 Created: 2019-04-17 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H. (2018). What drives trade in services?: Lessons from the Nordics. Applied Economics, 50(33), 3532-3545
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What drives trade in services?: Lessons from the Nordics
2018 (English)In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 33, p. 3532-3545Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article makes an empirical assessment of the relative importance of non-actionable institutional and cultural factors and actionable policy measures for services market integration, using the Nordic countries as a case study. The Nordics are an ideal case as they are perceived to be a cluster of similar countries, but they have chosen different relations to the European Union (EU) and the rest of the world. First, comparing actionable and non-actionable determinants of services trade, I find that policy-determined free trade agreements (FTAs) boost services trade by 75% and a single market by an additional 45%, while the accumulated effect of all standard non-actionable shared geographical, institutional and cultural features (sharing a land border, language, colonial past and legal origin) almost triples services trade. Having controlled for all these determinants, intra-Nordic trade in services is more than three times the predicted value. An unexplained Nordic bias of this magnitude indicates that full integration of services markets may rely on deeper institutional and cultural factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Services trade, trade barriers, regulation, institutions, F13, F14
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66938 (URN)10.1080/00036846.2018.1430334 (DOI)000430711500001 ()2-s2.0-85041014397 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Kyvik Nordås, H. (2017). India: The next growth miracle?. Cfi.co (Summer), pp. 188-189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>India: The next growth miracle?
2017 (English)In: Cfi.co, no Summer, p. 188-189Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Capital Finance International, 2017
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76014 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Benz, S., Anupam, K. & Nordås, H. K. (2017). Services and Performance of the Indian Economy: Analysis and Policy Options. OECD Trade Policy Papers (196), 1-55
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Services and Performance of the Indian Economy: Analysis and Policy Options
2017 (English)In: OECD Trade Policy Papers, E-ISSN 1816-6873, no 196, p. 1-55Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper highlights India’s unique services export led growth path. Observing that Indian business services have helped manufacturers all over the world to become more efficient and productive, it raises the question how Indian business services can do the same for local manufacturers and thus support the Make in India initiative. The paper also explores the potential for broadening the export base in services. The services sector that appears to have the largest prospect for unleashing the potential of both manufacturing and knowledge intensive business services is the telecommunications sector, particularly broadband internet services. In addition reforms in the distribution sector that enable multi-channel wholesale and retailing could facilitate the development of marketing channels for SME manufacturers both across the vast Indian market and abroad. Reforms in the logistics sector would further improve the competitiveness of local manufacturers producing time-sensitive goods including inputs to global value chains. Finally, competitiveness in knowledge-intensive services is obtained through knowledge sharing across borders. A prerequisite for broadening the export base in these sectors is openness to foreign professionals. The set of proposed recommendations emerging from this analysis underlines the importance of streamlining sector-level regulatory frameworks in all sectors to encourage foreign entry and competition, and the role that cross-cutting improvements in the trade and business environment would play to render services providers as well as down-stream manufacturers more competitive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OECD Publishing, 2017
Keywords
competitveness, trade policy, trade in manufacturing, services trade restrictions
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62676 (URN)10.1787/9259fd54-en (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2019-03-29Bibliographically approved
Nordås, H. K., Rouzet, D., Benz, S., Ferenz, J., Gonzales, F., Grosso, M. G., . . . Spinelli, F. (2017). Services trade policies and the global economy. OECD Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Services trade policies and the global economy
Show others...
2017 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book synthesises recent work by the OECD analysing services trade policies and quantifying their impacts on imports and exports, the performance of manufacturing and services sectors, and how services trade restrictions influence the decisions and outcomes of firms engaged in international markets. Based on the OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) - a unique, evidence-based tool that provides snapshots of regulations affecting trade in services in 22 sectors across 44 countries (representing over 80% of global trade in services) - the analysis highlights the magnitude, nature and impact of the costs entailed by restrictive services trade policies. The new evidence uncovered is meant to inform trade policy makers and the private sector about the likely effects of unilateral or concerted regulatory reforms and help prioritise policy action.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OECD Publishing, 2017. p. 103
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62707 (URN)10.1787/9789264275232-en (DOI)9789264275270 (ISBN)9789264275232 (ISBN)9789264274921 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Nordås, H. K. & Rouzet, D. (2017). The Impact of Services Trade Restrictiveness on Trade Flows. The World Economy, 40(6), 1155-1183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Services Trade Restrictiveness on Trade Flows
2017 (English)In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 1155-1183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper uses recent OECD data on services trade restrictions (STRI) to analyse the relationship between services trade policies and cross-border trade in services. A standard gravity model is enhanced by the STRI indices in a cross-section regression analysis. Services trade restrictions are negatively associated with both imports and exports of services. The surprisingly strong effect on services exports is probably explained by a negative relationship between the STRIs and sector performance indicators. Consequently, services suppliers from less open countries are less competitive abroad. Bilateral differences in regulation are also found to curtail services trade over and above the impact of the trade liberalisation level. At the margin, regulatory differences have a larger effect on trade flows the lower the level of the STRI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54182 (URN)10.1111/twec.12424 (DOI)000403112800007 ()2-s2.0-84995745465 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5944-3768

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