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Mäki-Torkko, Elina
Publications (10 of 29) Show all publications
Huttunen, K., Erixon, E., Löfkvist, U. & Mäki-Torkko, E. (2019). The impact of permanent early-onset unilateral hearing impairment in children: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 120, 173-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of permanent early-onset unilateral hearing impairment in children: A systematic review
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 120, p. 173-183Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Decision-making on treatment and (re)habilitation needs to be based on clinical expertise and scientific evidence. Research evidence for the impact of permanent unilateral hearing impairment (UHI) on children's development has been mixed and, in some of the reports, based on fairly small, heterogeneous samples. Additionally, treatment provided has been highly variable, ranging from no action taken or watchful waiting up to single-sided cochlear implantation. Published information about the effects of treatment has also been heterogeneous. Moreover, earlier reviews and meta-analyses published on the impact of UHI on children's development have generally focused on select areas of development.

Objectives: This systematic review aimed to summarize the impact of children's congenital or early onset unilateral hearing impairment on listening and auditory skills, communication, speech and language development, cognitive development, educational achievements, psycho-social development, and quality of life.

Methods: Literature searches were performed to identify reports published from inception to February 16th, 2018 with the main electronic bibliographic databases in medicine, psychology, education, and speech and hearing sciences as the data sources. PubMed, CINALH, ERIC, LLBA, PsychINFO, and ISI Web of Science were searched for unilateral hearing impairment with its synonyms and consequences of congenital or early onset unilateral hearing impairment. Eligible were articles written in English, German, or Swedish on permanent unilateral hearing impairments that are congenital or with onset before three years of age. Hearing impairment had to be of at least a moderate degree with PTA >= 40 dB averaged over frequencies 0.5 to 2 or 0.5-4 kHz, hearing in the contralateral ear had to have PTA(0.5-2 kHz) or PTA(0.5-4 kHz) <= 20 dB, and consequences of unilateral hearing impairment needed to be reported in an unanimously defined population in at least one of the areas the review focused on.

Four researchers independently screened 1618 abstracts and 566 full-text articles for evaluation of study eligibility. Eligible full-text articles were then reviewed to summarize the results and assess the quality of evidence. Additionally, data from 13 eligible case and multi-case studies, each having less than 10 participants, were extracted to summarize their results.

Quality assessment of evidence was made adapting the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process, and reporting of the results adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards.

Results: Three articles with the quality of evidence graded as very-low to low, fulfilled the eligibility criteria set. Due to the heterogeneity of the articles, only a descriptive summary could be generated from the results. Unilateral hearing impairment was reported to have a negative impact on preverbal vocalization of infants and on sound localization and speech perception both in quiet and in noise.

Conclusions: No high-quality studies of consequences of early-onset UHI in children were found. Inconsistency in assessing and reporting outcomes, the relatively small number of participants, low directness of evidence, and the potential risk of confounding factors in the reviewed studies prevented any definite conclusions. Further well-designed prospective research using larger samples is warranted on this topic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Single-sided hearing impairment, Single-sided hearing loss, Single-sided deafness, Speech, Language, Auditory behavior
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73954 (URN)10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.02.029 (DOI)000464298300033 ()30836274 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062238631 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

University of Oulu  

Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences  

Örebro University Hospital, Audiological Research Center, Örebro, Sweden  

Stiftelsen Acta Otolaryngologica, Sweden 

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Kytövuori, L., Hannula, S., Mäki-Torkko, E., Sorri, M. & Majamaa, K. (2017). A nonsynonymous mutation in the WFS1 gene in a Finnish family with age-related hearing impairment. Hearing Research, 355, 97-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A nonsynonymous mutation in the WFS1 gene in a Finnish family with age-related hearing impairment
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2017 (English)In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 355, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wolfram syndrome (WS) is caused by recessive mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene. Sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) is a frequent feature in WS and, furthermore, certain mutations in WFS1 cause nonsyndromic dominantly inherited low-frequency sensorineural HI. These two phenotypes are clinically distinct indicating that WFS1 is a reasonable candidate for genetic studies in patients with other phenotypes of HI. Here we have investigated, whether the variation in WFS1 has a pathogenic role in age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). WFS1 gene was investigated in a population sample of 518 Finnish adults born in 1938-1949 and representing variable hearing phenotypes. Identified variants were evaluated with respect to pathogenic potential. A rare mutation predicted to be pathogenic was found in a family with many members with impaired hearing. Twenty members were recruited to a segregation study and a detailed clinical examination. Heterozygous p.Tyr528His variant segregated completely with late-onset HI in which hearing deteriorated first at high frequencies and progressed to mid and low frequencies later in life. We report the first mutation in the WFS1 gene causing late-onset HI with audiogram configurations typical for ARHI. Monogenic forms of ARHI are rare and our results add WFS1 to the short list of such genes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Age-related hearing impairment, High-frequency hearing impairment, Presbyacusis, Wolfram syndrome
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62799 (URN)10.1016/j.heares.2017.09.013 (DOI)000415775600010 ()28974383 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030464934 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-08-11Bibliographically approved
Lohi, V., Ohtonen, P., Aikio, P., Sorri, M., Mäki-Torkko, E. & Hannula, S. (2017). Hearing impairment is common among Saami adults in Northern Finland. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76(1), Article ID 1398004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing impairment is common among Saami adults in Northern Finland
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1398004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Saami are the only indigenous population in Europe and their traditional living area is northern Scandinavia. Hearing impairment (HI) among Saami has not been studied before. The objective was to investigate the presence and type of HI among Saami adults, aged 49-77 years (median age 61 years), living in northern Finland. In addition, the presence of self-reported hearing difficulties, difficulties to hear in background noise and tinnitus were studied. An epidemiological, cross-sectional study encompassing a structured interview, otological examination and audiometry was performed. Bilateral HI was present in 42.9% of men and 29.4% of women, when HI was defined as a pure tone average (PTA) of at least 20 dB hearing level (HL) or more at the frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. In one or both ears (worse ear hearing level, WEHL0.5,1,2,4≥20 dB HL) HI was present in 61.8% of men and 42.2% of women. Sensorineural high frequency hearing impairment was found to be most common. Nearly half (46.9%) of the study subjects reported hearing problems and more than half (55.6%) reported difficulties in following conversation in background noise. Measured HI and subjective hearing difficulties are common among the Saami adults. The healthcare personnel working in this area should be aware of the hearing problems of the Saami population.

ABBREVIATIONS: ARHI, Age-related hearing impairment; PTA, Pure tone average; HI, Hearing impairment; HL, Hearing level; BEHL, Better ear hearing level; WEHL, Worse ear hearing level; CI, Confidence interval.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Hearing loss, Saami, adult, indigenous
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62798 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2017.1398004 (DOI)000417206700001 ()29132251 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

VTR funding of Oulu University Hospital  

European ARHI  QLRT-2001-00331 

Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-08-11Bibliographically approved
Zeitooni, M., Mäki-Torkko, E. & Stenfelt, S. (2016). Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.. Ear and Hearing, 37(6), 690-702
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.
2016 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 690-702Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones.

DESIGN: Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus.

RESULTS: In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation.

CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63440 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000336 (DOI)000400824200013 ()27560492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84983535359 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-09Bibliographically approved
Frodlund, J., Harder, H., Mäki-Torkko, E. & Ledin, T. (2016). Vestibular Function After Cochlear Implantation: A Comparison of Three Types of Electrodes. Otology and Neurotology, 37(10), 1535-1540
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vestibular Function After Cochlear Implantation: A Comparison of Three Types of Electrodes
2016 (English)In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 1535-1540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the vestibular function after cochlear implantation with different types of electrode arrays.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty three adults underwent first cochlear implantation. Three consecutive series of patients: Group 1 (n = 13) implanted with a precurved electrode, Group 2 (n = 15) implanted with a straight electrode, Group 3 (n = 15) implanted with a flexible electrode. Patient's vestibular functions were assessed with pre- and postoperative caloric testing using videonystagmography (VNG). The postoperative reduction of the maximum slow phase velocity (MSPV) in the implanted ear was evaluated. Medical charts were reviewed to evaluate the occurrence of late onset of postoperative vestibular symptoms.

RESULTS: Mean reduction of MSPV was 7.6/s (standard deviation [SD] 8.0) in Group 1, 23.1/s (SD 16.6) in Group 2, and 0.1/s (SD 18.5) in Group 3. Significant difference was found between Group 1 and 2 (p < 0.030) and between Group 2 and 3 (p < 0.001). Group 2 showed a higher prevalence of late onset of clinical vertigo (28.6%) than Group 1 (7.7%) and 3 (6.7%).

CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, significantly larger reductions of caloric responses were found in subjects implanted with a straight electrode compared with subjects implanted with a precurved or flexible electrode. These findings seem to correlate to a higher prevalence of postoperative vertigo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63441 (URN)10.1097/MAO.0000000000001229 (DOI)000388185000019 ()27749755 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84991509120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Asp, F., Mäki-Torkko, E., Karltorp, E., Harder, H., Hergils, L., Eskilsson, G. & Stenfelt, S. (2015). A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants. International Journal of Audiology, 54(2), 77-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization.

DESIGN: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing.

STUDY SAMPLE: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data.

RESULTS: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization.

CONCLUSIONS: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Bilateral cochlear implants, children, release from masking, sound localization
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63454 (URN)10.3109/14992027.2014.973536 (DOI)000347971300003 ()25428567 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84921297612 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Note

Funding agencies:

Tysta Skolan Foundation

Stockholm County Council

Karolinska University Hospital

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lohi, V., Hannula, S., Ohtonen, P., Sorri, M. & Mäki-Torkko, E. (2015). Hearing impairment among adults: the impact of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Audiology, 54(4), 265-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing impairment among adults: the impact of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 265-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cardiovascular diseases on hearing impairment (HI) among adults. Furthermore, to seek other potential risk factors for HI, such as smoking, obesity, and socioeconomic class.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional, unscreened, population-based, epidemiological study among adults.

STUDY SAMPLE: The subjects (n = 850), aged 54-66 years, were randomly sampled from the population register. A questionnaire survey, an otological examination, and pure-tone audiometry were performed.

RESULTS: Cardiovascular diseases did not increase the risk for HI in a propensity-score adjusted logistic regression model: OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.96 for HI defined by better ear hearing level (BEHL), and OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.28 for HI defined by worse ear hearing level (WEHL), in the 0.5-4 kHz frequency range. Heavy smoking is a risk factor for HI among men (BEHL: OR 1.96, WEHL: OR 1.88) and women (WEHL: OR 2.4). Among men, obesity (BEHL, OR 1.85) and lower socioeconomic class (BEHL: OR 2.79, WEHL: OR 2.28) are also risk factors for HI.

CONCLUSION: No significant association between cardiovascular disease and HI was found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
Hearing impairment, adult, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, socioeconomic class
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63442 (URN)10.3109/14992027.2014.974112 (DOI)000352704800008 ()25547009 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84928041958 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:

Oulu University Hospital  

European ARHI Project QLRT-2001-00331 

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-07-09Bibliographically approved
Hesser, H., Gustafsson, T., Lundén, C., Henrikson, O., Fattahi, K., Johnsson, E., . . . Andersson, G. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of tinnitus. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(4), 649-661
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of tinnitus
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0022-006X, E-ISSN 1939-2117, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 649-661Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format.

METHOD: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were significantly distressed by tinnitus were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 32), ACT (n = 35), or a control condition (monitored Internet discussion forum; n = 32), and they were assessed with standardized self-report measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; Quality of Life Inventory; Perceived Stress Scale; Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire) at pre-, posttreatment (8 weeks), and 1-year follow-up.

RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant effects on the primary outcome (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) for CBT and for ACT compared with control at posttreatment (95% CI [-17.03, -2.94], d = 0.70, and 95% CI [-16.29, -2.53], d = 0.68, respectively). Within-group effects were substantial from pretreatment through 1-year-follow-up for both treatments (95% CI [-44.65, -20.45], d = 1.34), with no significant difference between treatments (95% CI [-14.87, 11.21], d = 0.16).

CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance-based procedures may be a viable alternative to traditional CBT techniques in the management of tinnitus. The Internet can improve access to psychological interventions for tinnitus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2012
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63455 (URN)10.1037/a0027021 (DOI)000306861800011 ()22250855 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84868376964 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Boisvert, I., Lyxell, B., Mäki-Torkko, E., McMahon, C. M. & Dowell, R. C. (2012). Choice of ear for cochlear implantation in adults with monaural sound-deprivation and unilateral hearing aid. Otology and Neurotology, 33(4), 572-579
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choice of ear for cochlear implantation in adults with monaural sound-deprivation and unilateral hearing aid
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2012 (English)In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 572-579Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To identify whether speech recognition outcomes are influenced by the choice of ear for cochlear implantation in adults with bilateral hearing loss who use a hearing aid in 1 ear but have long-term auditory deprivation in the other.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective matched cohort study. Speech recognition results were examined in 30 adults with monaural sound deprivation. Fifteen received the implant in the sound-deprived ear and 15 in the aided ear.

SETTING: Tertiary referral centers with active cochlear implant programs.

PATIENTS: Adults with bilateral hearing loss and a minimum of 15 years of monaural sound deprivation who received a cochlear implant after meeting the traditional implantation criteria of the referral centers.

INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Paired comparisons of postoperative monosyllabic word recognition scores obtained with the implant alone and in the usual listening condition (CI alone or bimodal).

RESULTS: With the cochlear implant alone, individuals who received the implant in a sound-deprived ear obtained poorer scores than individuals who received the implant in the aided ear. There was no significant difference, however, in speech recognition results for the 2 groups when tested in their usual listening condition. In particular, poorer speech recognition scores were obtained with the cochlear implant alone by individuals using bimodal hearing.

CONCLUSION: Similar clinical outcomes of cochlear implantation can be achieved by adults with a long-term monaural sound deprivation when comparing the usual listening condition, irrespective of whether the implant is in the sound-deprived or in the aided ear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63480 (URN)10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182544cdb (DOI)000304315900016 ()22588234 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84861305448 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:

Macquarie University  

HEARing CRC  

Australian Government  

HEAD Graduate School in Sweden 

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
Hannula, S., Bloigu, R., Majamaa, K., Sorri, M. & Mäki-Torkko, E. (2012). Ear diseases and other risk factors for hearing impairment among adults: an epidemiological study. International Journal of Audiology, 51(11), 833-840
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ear diseases and other risk factors for hearing impairment among adults: an epidemiological study
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 833-840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of ear diseases, other otological risk factors potentially affecting hearing, and noise exposure among adults. Furthermore, subject-related factors possibly associated with hearing impairment (HI), i.e. handedness, eye color, and susceptibility to sunburn, were studied.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional, unscreened, population-based, epidemiological study among adults.

STUDY SAMPLE: The subjects (n = 850), aged 54-66 years, were randomly sampled from the population register. A questionnaire survey, an otological examination, and pure-tone audiometry were performed.

RESULTS: Chronic middle-ear disease (both active and inactive) was the most common ear disease with a prevalence of 5.3%, while the prevalence of otosclerosis was 1.3%, and that of Ménière's disease, 0.7%. Noise exposure was reported by 46% of the subjects, and it had no effect on hearing among those with no ear disease or other otological risk factors for HI. Dark eye color and non-susceptibility to sunburn were associated with HI among noise-exposed subjects.

CONCLUSIONS: Common ear diseases and other otological risk factors constitute a major part of the etiologies of HI among adults. Contrary to previous studies, noise exposure turned out to have only marginal effect on hearing among those with no otological risk factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2012
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63483 (URN)10.3109/14992027.2012.707334 (DOI)000309746600005 ()22934931 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84867481428 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:

European ARHI Project QLRT-2001-00331 

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
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