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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Sigurdsson, G., Giaretta, A. & Dragoni, N. (2020). Vulnerabilities and Security Breaches in Cryptocurrencies. In: Ciancarini, P.; Mazzara, M.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018. Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerabilities and Security Breaches in Cryptocurrencies
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Mazzara, M.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Springer, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357 ; 925
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71864 (URN)978-3-030-14686-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-14687-0 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Herskind, L., Giaretta, A., De Donno, M. & Dragoni, N. (2019). BitFlow: Enabling Real‐time Cash‐flow Evaluations through Blockchain. Concurrency and Computation, Article ID e5333.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BitFlow: Enabling Real‐time Cash‐flow Evaluations through Blockchain
2019 (English)In: Concurrency and Computation, ISSN 1532-0626, E-ISSN 1532-0634, article id e5333Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Disbursement registration has always been a cumbersome, opaque, and inefficient process, up to the point that most businesses perform cash-flow evaluations only on a quarterly basis. We believe that automatic cash-flow evaluations can actively mitigate these issues. In this paper, we presentBitFlow, ablockchain-based architecture thatprovides complete cash-flow transparency and diminishes the probability of undetected frauds through the BitKrone, a non-volatile cryptocurrency that maps to the Danish Krone (DKK). We show that confidentiality can be effectively achieved on a permissionless blockchain using Zero-Knowledge proofs, ensuring verifiable transfers and automatic evaluations. Furthermore, we discuss several experiments to evaluate our proposal, in particular, the impact that confidential transactions have on the whole system, in terms of responsiveness and from an economical expenditure perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
BitFlow, blockchain, bulletproofs, cash-flow, Ethereum, zero-knowledge
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78929 (URN)10.1002/cpe.5333 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M., Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N., Bucchiarone, A. & Mazzara, M. (2019). Cyber-Storms Come from Clouds: Security of Cloud Computing in the IoT Era. Future Internet, 11(6), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyber-Storms Come from Clouds: Security of Cloud Computing in the IoT Era
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2019 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly changing our society to a world where every thing is connected to the Internet, making computing pervasive like never before. This tsunami of connectivity and data collection relies more and more on the Cloud, where data analytics and intelligence actually reside. Cloud computing has indeed revolutionized the way computational resources and services can be used and accessed, implementing the concept of utility computing whose advantages are undeniable for every business. However, despite the benefits in terms of flexibility, economic savings, and support of new services, its widespread adoption is hindered by the security issues arising with its usage. From a security perspective, the technological revolution introduced by IoT and Cloud computing can represent a disaster, as each object might become inherently remotely hackable and, as a consequence, controllable by malicious actors. While the literature mostly focuses on the security of IoT and Cloud computing as separate entities, in this article we provide an up-to-date and well-structured survey of the security issues of cloud computing in the IoT era. We give a clear picture of where security issues occur and what their potential impact is. As a result, we claim that it is not enough to secure IoT devices, as cyber-storms come from Clouds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
security, Internet of Things, Cloud computing
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75237 (URN)10.3390/fi11060127 (DOI)000473805800007 ()2-s2.0-85067464961 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-25Bibliographically approved
Tavella, F., Giaretta, A., Dooley-Cullinane, T. M., Conti, M., Coffey, L. & Balasubramaniam, S. (2019). DNA Molecular Storage System: Transferring Digitally Encoded Information through Bacterial Nanonetworks. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DNA Molecular Storage System: Transferring Digitally Encoded Information through Bacterial Nanonetworks
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, ISSN 2168-6750Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Since the birth of computer and networks, fuelled by pervasive computing, Internet of Things and ubiquitous connectivity, the amount of data stored and transmitted has exponentially grown through the years. Due to this demand, new storage solutions are needed. One promising media is the DNA as it provides numerous advantages, which includes the ability to store dense information while achieving long-term reliability. However, the question as to how the data can be retrieved from a DNA-based archive, still remains. In this paper, we aim to address this question by proposing a new storage solution that relies on bacterial nanonetworks properties. Our solution allows digitally-encoded DNA to be stored into motility-restricted bacteria, which compose an archival architecture of clusters, and to be later retrieved by engineered motile bacteria, whenever reading operations are needed. We conducted extensive simulations, in order to determine the reliability of data retrieval from motility-restricted storage clusters, placed spatially at different locations. Aiming to assess the feasibility of our solution, we have also conducted wet lab experiments that show how bacteria nanonetworks can effectively retrieve a simple message, such as "Hello World", by conjugation with motility-restricted bacteria, and finally mobilize towards a target point for delivery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
DNA Encoding, Data Storage, Bacterial Nanonetworks, Molecular Communications
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78931 (URN)10.1109/TETC.2019.2932685 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-09Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N. & Massacci, F. (2019). IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract. Sensors, 19(19), Article ID E4121.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoT Security Configurability with Security-by-Contract
2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 19, article id E4121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cybersecurity is one of the biggest challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, as well as one of its most embarrassing failures. As a matter of fact, nowadays IoT devices still exhibit various shortcomings. For example, they lack secure default configurations and sufficient security configurability. They also lack rich behavioural descriptions, failing to list provided and required services. To answer this problem, we envision a future where IoT devices carry behavioural contracts and Fog nodes store network policies. One requirement is that contract consistency must be easy to prove. Moreover, contracts must be easy to verify against network policies. In this paper, we propose to combine the security-by-contract (S × C) paradigm with Fog computing to secure IoT devices. Following our previous work, first we formally define the pillars of our proposal. Then, by means of a running case study, we show that we can model communication flows and prevent information leaks. Last, we show that our contribution enables a holistic approach to IoT security, and that it can also prevent unexpected chains of events.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Fog computing, IoT, configurability, security, security-by-contract
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76829 (URN)10.3390/s19194121 (DOI)000494823200065 ()31548501 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072578077 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-30 Created: 2019-09-30 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., Dragoni, N. & Massacci, F. (2019). Protecting the Internet of Things with Security-by-Contract and Fog Computing. In: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT): . Paper presented at 5th IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT 2019), Limerick, Ireland, April 15-18, 2019. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protecting the Internet of Things with Security-by-Contract and Fog Computing
2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), IEEE , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a consolidated reality. Smart homes are equipped with a growing number of IoT devices that capture more and more information about human beings lives. However, manufacturers paid little or no attention to security, so that various challenges are still in place. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure IoT systems that combines the concept of Security-by-Contract (SxC) with the Fog computing distributed paradigm. We define the pillars of our approach, namely the notions of IoT device contract, Fog node policy and contract-policy matching, the respective life-cycles, and the resulting SxC workflow. To better understand all the concepts of the SxC framework, and highlight its practical feasibility, we use a running case study based on a context-aware system deployed in a real smart home.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
security-by-contract, Fog computing, IoT
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78009 (URN)10.1109/WF-IoT.2019.8767243 (DOI)000492865800001 ()2-s2.0-85073699472 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-4980-0 (ISBN)
Conference
5th IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT 2019), Limerick, Ireland, April 15-18, 2019
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., Pepe, S. & Dragoni, N. (2019). UniquID: A Quest to Reconcile Identity Access Management and the IoT. In: Mazzara M., Bruel JM., Meyer B., Petrenko A. (Ed.), Software Technology: Methods and Tools. Paper presented at 51st International Conference on Software Technology: Methods and Tools (TOOLS 2019), Innopolis, Russia, October 15-17, 2019 (pp. 237-251). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UniquID: A Quest to Reconcile Identity Access Management and the IoT
2019 (English)In: Software Technology: Methods and Tools / [ed] Mazzara M., Bruel JM., Meyer B., Petrenko A., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 237-251Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) has caused a revolutionary paradigm shift in computer networking. After decades of human-centered routines, where devices were merely tools that enabled human beings to authenticate themselves and perform activities, we are now dealing with a device-centered paradigm: the devices themselves are actors, not just tools for people. Conventional identity access management (IAM) frameworks were not designed to handle the challenges of IoT. Trying to use traditional IAM systems to reconcile heterogeneous devices and complex federations of online services (e.g., IoT sensors and cloud computing solutions) adds a cumbersome architectural layer that can become hard to maintain and act as a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose UniquID, a blockchain-based solution that overcomes the need for centralized IAM architectures while providing scalability and robustness. We also present the experimental results of a proof-of-concept UniquID enrolment network, and we discuss two different use-cases that show the considerable value of a blockchain-based IAM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11771
Keywords
IAM, Identity management systems, Blockchain, Internet of Things, IoT, Machine-to-machine, M2M
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78932 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-29852-4_20 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075676910 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-29851-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-29852-4 (ISBN)
Conference
51st International Conference on Software Technology: Methods and Tools (TOOLS 2019), Innopolis, Russia, October 15-17, 2019
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A., De Donno, M. & Dragoni, N. (2018). Adding Salt to Pepper: A Structured Security Assessment over a Humanoid Robot. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security: . Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018), Hamburg, Germany, August 27-30, 2018. ACM, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adding Salt to Pepper: A Structured Security Assessment over a Humanoid Robot
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ACM , 2018, article id 22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rise of connectivity, digitalization, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly changing our society and shaping its future development. During this technological and societal revolution, security has been persistently neglected, yet a hacked robot can act as an insider threat in organizations, industries, public spaces, and private homes. In this paper, we perform a structured security assessment of Pepper, a commercial humanoid robot. Our analysis, composed by an automated and a manual part, points out a relevant number of security flaws that can be used to take over and command the robot. Furthermore, we suggest how these issues could be fixed, thus, avoided in the future. The very final aim of this work is to push the rise of the security level of IoT products before they are sold on the public market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM, 2018
Series
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series
Keywords
Internet of Things (IoT), Penetration Testing, Pepper, Robot, Security
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71106 (URN)10.1145/3230833.3232807 (DOI)000477981800043 ()2-s2.0-85055287152 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6448-5 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2018), Hamburg, Germany, August 27-30, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
De Donno, M., Dragoni, N., Giaretta, A. & Mazzara, M. (2018). AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks. In: Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G. (Ed.), Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016. Paper presented at 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, Rome, Italy, May 10, 2016 (pp. 59-72). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AntibIoTic: Protecting IoT Devices Against DDoS Attacks
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications: SEDA 2016 / [ed] Ciancarini, P.; Litvinov, S.; Messina, A.; Sillitti, A.; Succi, G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 59-72Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 2016 is remembered as the year that showed to the world how dangerous Distributed Denial of Service attacks can be. Gauge of the disruptiveness of DDoS attacks is the number of bots involved: the bigger the botnet, the more powerful the attack. This character, along with the increasing availability of connected and insecure IoT devices, makes DDoS and IoT the perfect pair for the malware industry. In this paper we present the main idea behind AntibIoTic, a palliative solution to prevent DDoS attacks perpetrated through IoT devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (AISC), ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365 ; 717
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64665 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-70578-1_7 (DOI)000434086000007 ()2-s2.0-85041797799 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-70577-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-70578-1 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, Rome, Italy, May 10, 2016
Available from: 2018-01-30 Created: 2018-01-30 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
Giaretta, A. & Dragoni, N. (2018). Community Targeted Phishing: A Middle Ground Between Massive and Spear Phishing through Natural Language Generation. In: : . Paper presented at 6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community Targeted Phishing: A Middle Ground Between Massive and Spear Phishing through Natural Language Generation
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Looking at today spam and phishing panorama, we are able to identify two diametrically opposed approaches. On the one hand we have general spam, which targets as much as people as possible with generic and pre-formed texts; on the other hand we have very specific emails, handcrafted to target high-value targets. While nowadays these two worlds don't intersect at all, we envision a future where Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques will enable attackers to target populous communities with machine-tailored emails. In this paper, we introduce what we call Community Targeted Spam (CTS), alongside with some workflows that exhibit how this all could be implemented. Furthermore, we suggest some preliminary directions that scientific community should consider to take, in order to address our concerns.

National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71862 (URN)
Conference
6th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications (SEDA 2018), Rome, Italy, June 7-8, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9293-7711

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