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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Ericsson, N., Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2017). A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT): Proceedings. Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2017), Hilton Toronto, Toronto, Canada, March 23-25, 2017 (pp. 1112-1117). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A flexible communication stack design for time sensitive embedded systems
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT): Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1112-1117Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trends like Internet of Things (IoT), 5G and Cloud are pushing for device connectivity to the Internet, which affects industrial embedded systems with e.g., an increase in code base and functionality. Due to different application requirements, there are relative little reuse between embedded systems with different run-time context (from super loop to multi-threaded), and different types of communication (best effort and real time). In order to improve code reuse and changeability, we propose a flexible communication stack design, that can be configured for time sensitive communication with a real-time operating system (RTOS), or configured for best effort communication with either a super loop or an operating system (OS). Experiments demonstrate the flexibility and simplicity of the design with different configurations, e.g., super loop, single threaded, multi-threaded. Measurements show that the variations in performance related to run-time context scales as expected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Computer operating systems, Internet of things, Real time systems, Application requirements, Best effort, Best-effort communication, Flexible communication, Internet of Things (IOT), Multithreaded, Real time operating system, Single-threaded, Embedded systems
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65223 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915518 (DOI)000404252400184 ()2-s2.0-85019610278 (Scopus ID)9781509053209 (ISBN)9781509053216 (ISBN)9781509053193 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2017), Hilton Toronto, Toronto, Canada, March 23-25, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J., Hansen, E. & Yu, K. (2017). A new wireless sensor network TDMA timing synchronization protocol. In: 2016 IEEE 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN): . Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2016), Palais des Congres du Futuroscope, Poitiers, France, July 19-21, 2016 (pp. 606-611). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new wireless sensor network TDMA timing synchronization protocol
2017 (English)In: 2016 IEEE 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 606-611Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks are gaining momentum and have started to target new and more demanding application scenarios extending pure monitoring scenarios. In this paper we discuss the needs for simple and more accurate TDMA timing synchronization to enable the future applications. We present a novel TDMA timing synchronization protocol which is simple to implement, as well as a performance evaluation using of-the-shelf hardware indicating measured worst case synchronization errors less than 10 microseconds at five hops from the synchronization master. The paper shows that it is possible to realize synchronization on average around 1 microsecond with little effort and negligible computational or network overhead.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN, E-ISSN 2378-363X
Keywords
Synchronization, Timing circuits, Wireless sensor networks, Application scenario, Future applications, Gaining momentum, Industrial wireless sensors, OR-networks, Synchronization error, Timing synchronization, Time division multiple access
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65231 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2016.7819233 (DOI)000393551200092 ()2-s2.0-85012872867 (Scopus ID)9781509028702 (ISBN)9781509028719 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2016), Palais des Congres du Futuroscope, Poitiers, France, July 19-21, 2016
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Lennvall, T., Gidlund, M. & Åkerberg, J. (2017). Challenges when bringing IoT into Industrial Automation. In: Darryn R. Cornish (Ed.), 2017 IEEE AFRICON: Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa, AFRICON 2017. Paper presented at IEEE AFRICON'17, Cape Town, South Africa, 18-20 Sept., 2017 (pp. 905-910). IEEE, Article ID 8095602.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges when bringing IoT into Industrial Automation
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE AFRICON: Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa, AFRICON 2017 / [ed] Darryn R. Cornish, IEEE, 2017, p. 905-910, article id 8095602Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is captivating the society because of its potential to rapidly transform businesses and people’s lives. It is widely believed that IoT will also transform the industrial automation business in terms of improved productivity, less cost, flexibility, and increased revenues. Hence, there are some challenges that needs to be addressed when IoT is introduced to the industrial automation domain. This paperaims to present realistic requirements and highlights identified challenges such as security, interoperability, deterministic and low latency communication, and how the required availability (uptime) can be kept. Moreover, the paper also point out the need of standardization and sustainable business models. The conclusion is that introducing IoT devices and connecting them directly to cloud services is not straightforward for process automation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
IoT, Industrial Automation, Fog Computing, WSN
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65235 (URN)10.1109/AFRCON.2017.8095602 (DOI)2-s2.0-85039974478 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2775-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE AFRICON'17, Cape Town, South Africa, 18-20 Sept., 2017
Projects
M2M CommunicationTimeliness
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVINNOVA
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, N., Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2017). Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during research and development. In: 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): . Paper presented at 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Limassol, Cyprus, September 12-15, 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Custom simulation of Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network for improved efficiency during research and development
2017 (English)In: 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Trends like the Cloud, Internet of Things and 5G are pushing for an increase in connectivity, but, introducing a new type of network in an industrial distributed control system is a big investment with high risks. Time to market with sufficient quality is crucial. However, when getting through the Research and Development (R&D) phases, a lot of time is spent on isolated activates, e.g., simulations, collecting requirements, design, coding, debugging, creating testbeds, and performing various tests. Therefore, there is a need to improve efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For verification and validation of communication software, the most common network evaluation method in industry are real testbeds, mostly since a testbed can be very similar to the deployed system. Testbeds are, however, hard to debug and costly to maintain. Other network evaluation methods like simulators, have some strengths that testbeds are lacking, like repeatability, control over the network, and lower cost. However, code from simulators can seldom be reused, especially in industrial time-sensitive target systems, due to different abstraction levels, run-time behavior and system timing. This paper presents findings from a case study that targets improved efficiency, getting from research theories, to deployed devices in a homogeneous Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (IWSAN). We propose a small subset of network simulators features which eases changeability, reuse, and debugging of communication software. The selected simulator features are evaluated with a proof of concept implementation that is customized to a research platform. The findings indicate improved efficiency when moving back and forth between activities in different R&D phases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), ISSN 1946-0740, E-ISSN 1946-0759
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65222 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2017.8247657 (DOI)000427812000092 ()2-s2.0-85044463234 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-6505-9 (ISBN)978-1-5090-6504-2 (ISBN)978-1-5090-6506-6 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Limassol, Cyprus, September 12-15, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
Gidlund, M., Lennvall, T. & Åkerberg, J. (2017). Will 5G become yet another wireless technology for industrial automation?. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT): Proceedings. Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2017), Hilton Toronto, Toronto, Canada, March 23-25, 2017 (pp. 1319-1324). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Will 5G become yet another wireless technology for industrial automation?
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT): Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1319-1324Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the growing interest in adoption of wireless technologies in industrial automation and the continuous search for new revenue streams new players are entering the arena in order to make their business grow further. One of the emerging wireless technologies aiming to support industrial automation applications is 5G, targeting anything from extreme throughput (> 10 Gbit/s) to extreme low latency (≤ 1 ms) to ultra high reliability (≥ 99.999%). In this article we intend to discuss the potential and challenges of adopting 5G in real industrial environments and give a more balanced picture compared to previous articles mainly written by telecom researchers and vendors as a way to promote their technology. Specifically, this article will discuss and provide some real industrial requirements, describe the main technical features of 5G and try to assess what applications it will support that are not by already supported by existing technologies. In the end, the success of 5G will depend on appealing business models and scalability, i.e., whether or not the same equipment can be deployed worldwide without any changes and spectrum rules, and the migration paths beyond 5G for reasonable business risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Automation, Wireless telecommunication systems, Adoption of wireless, Emerging wireless technologies, Industrial automation, Industrial automation applications, Industrial environments, Industrial requirements, Technical features, Wireless technologies, 5G mobile communication systems
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65225 (URN)10.1109/ICIT.2017.7915554 (DOI)000404252400218 ()2-s2.0-85019607182 (Scopus ID)9781509053209 (ISBN)9781509053216 (ISBN)9781509053193 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2017), Hilton Toronto, Toronto, Canada, March 23-25, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, N., Lennvall, T., Åkerberg, J. & Björkman, M. (2016). Challenges from research to deployment of industrial distributed control systems. In: 2016 IEEE 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN): . Paper presented at 14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2016), Palais des Congres du Futuroscope, Poitiers, France, July 19-21, 2016 (pp. 68-73). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges from research to deployment of industrial distributed control systems
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE 14th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 68-73Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A trend in the industrial domain is that the networks are growing and becoming more complex, this is further accelerated by the digitalization trend. In order to address this, there is a need to improve the efficiency when moving between the R&D phases. For example, integrate innovative research findings into industrial systems, shorten time to market, improve product quality and reduce the number of issues. Despite a huge research effort on network simulators and emulators there are still some issues that needs to be addressed. This paper presents challenges that needs to be resolved, in order for the industry to adopt and benefit from using network simulators and emulators. The major challenges streamlining the workflow in and between the different R&D phases while preserving the real-time aspects in the entire industrial distributed control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN, E-ISSN 2378-363X
Keywords
Complex networks, Control systems, Distributed parameter control systems, Industrial systems, Integrate innovative, Network simulators, Real time aspects, Research efforts, Time to market, Industrial research
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65220 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2016.7819136 (DOI)000393551200008 ()2-s2.0-85012904215 (Scopus ID)9781509028702 (ISBN)9781509028719 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2016), Palais des Congres du Futuroscope, Poitiers, France, July 19-21, 2016
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Grimaldi, S., Gidlund, M., Lennvall, T. & Barac, F. (2016). Detecting communication blackout in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 2016 IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): Proceedings. Paper presented at 12th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS 2016), Aveiro, Portugal, May 3-6, 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 7496502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting communication blackout in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS): Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7496502Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Communication blackout is one of the most serious pitfalls of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in industrial automation context. The industrial radio channel exhibits pronounced effects of multipath fading and wireless LAN (WLAN) interference that can potentially lead to temporary communication failures, as well as complete isolation of network devices. The current IWSN standards adopt known countermeasures to cope with the harshness of the radio channel, but they lack solutions specifically oriented to detect blackouts and self-recover the communication fulfilling hard deadline constraints. In this work we focus on the problem of blackout detection with specific interest for the WirelessHART standard, introducing a Blackout Detection Service (BDS) expressly addressed to multi-hop periodic communication with sensors and actuators. The BDS monitors end-to-end acknowledgement messages and builds specific metrics to promptly identify communication outages, enabling three criticality classes. The algorithm is tested in the ns-2 network simulator and results show that the proposed system is able to detect blackout events with reaction delays of the order of 4-5 times the refresh rate of nodes and to discriminate between small and temporary network issues and serious blackout scenarios, opening the field for recovery strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keywords
WSN, reliability, real-time, networks
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65228 (URN)10.1109/WFCS.2016.7496502 (DOI)000382857300008 ()2-s2.0-84982833586 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-2339-4 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS 2016), Aveiro, Portugal, May 3-6, 2016
Projects
ASIS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Lennvall, T., Frey, J.-E. & Gidlund, M. (2015). Wireless Sensor Networks for Automation (2ed.). In: R. Zurawski (Ed.), Industrial communication technology handbook: (pp. 36-1-36-1). Boca Raton: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Sensor Networks for Automation
2015 (English)In: Industrial communication technology handbook / [ed] R. Zurawski, Boca Raton: CRC Press , 2015, 2, p. 36-1-36-1Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015 Edition: 2
Series
Industrial information technology series
Keywords
WSN, Applications
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65232 (URN)9781482207323 (ISBN)9781482207330 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Åkerberg, J., Gidlund, M., Lennvall, T., Landernäs, K. & Björkman, M. (2013). Design Challenges and Objectives in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. In: V. Çağrı Güngör and Gerhard P. Hancke (Ed.), Industrial wireless sensor networks: applications, protocols, and standards (pp. 79-100). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Challenges and Objectives in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
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2013 (English)In: Industrial wireless sensor networks: applications, protocols, and standards / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör and Gerhard P. Hancke, Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis , 2013, p. 79-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Series
Industrial electronics series
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65240 (URN)9781466500518 (ISBN)9781466500525 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Lennvall, T., Landernäs, K., Gidlund, M. & Åkerberg, J. (2013). Industrial WSN Standards. In: V. Çağrı Güngör and Gerhard P. Hancke (Ed.), Industrial wireless sensor networks: applications, protocols, and standards (pp. 339-358). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial WSN Standards
2013 (English)In: Industrial wireless sensor networks: applications, protocols, and standards / [ed] V. Çağrı Güngör and Gerhard P. Hancke, Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis , 2013, p. 339-358Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Series
Industrial electronics series
Keywords
IWSN, WSN, Reliability
National Category
Computer Engineering Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65237 (URN)978-1-4665-0051-8 (ISBN)978-1-4665-0052-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2902-7819

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