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Chatzipetrou, Panagiota, Assistant ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0311-1502
Biography [swe]

Dr. Panagiota Chatzipetrou is an Assistant Professor at Örebro University in Örebro,Sweden.

She received her BSc degree in Informatics, MSc in “Informatics and Business Administration” and Ph.D. in Informatics from the Department of Informatics,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh),Greece. Her doctoral dissertation has the title:“Statistical methods in information systems project planning”.In parallel, she holds a master in pedagogy and didactics and she has been educated in special education,learning difficulties and dyslexia.

As a researcher, she mainly focuses on empirical studies under the different perspectives of software development.Her research interests include applications of statistical methods to quality problems in software engineering and especially to requirements engineering and the exploitation of human factor and the different views that ultimately determine the quality of a software product and the product development.Also, she has been working with decision support systems for the development of software-intensive systems,large-scale agile(and global)software development, and behavioral software engineering.

Publications (10 of 23) Show all publications
Smite, D., Moe, N. B., Floryan, M., Levinta, G. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2020). Spotify guilds. Communications of the ACM, 63(3), 58-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotify guilds
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2020 (English)In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 58-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the increasing popularity of agile development and team-oriented practices, bottom-up coordination structures have found their ways into software companies, first changing the small companies and now revolutionizing large-scale development projects and programs. One of the ways to enable bottom-up coordination is cultivation of communities of practice. Existing research has demonstrated that successful implementation of communities of practice depends on organizational support, mutual engagement and regular interaction. Engagement is said to increase, when a community creates value for the organization and individual community members, while increased engagement is further associated with the ability to create more value. However, little is known about how to ensure member engagement in large-scale environments covering many sites and thousands of developers. In this article, we report our findings from studying member engagement in large-scale distributed communities of practice at Spotify called guilds. We report the perceived value guilds provide on individual and organizational level, and discuss what hinders and what stimulates mutual engagement and value creation across time and space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020
Keywords
Communities of practice, guilds, global software development, large-scale, agile, empirical
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80774 (URN)10.1145/3343146 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080863519 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Yu, L., Alégroth, E., Chatzipetrou, P. & Gorschek, T. (2020). Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs. Information and Software Technology, 117, Article ID 106199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs
2020 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 117, article id 106199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context

Continuous integration (CI) is a practice that aims to continuously verify quality aspects of a software intensive system both for functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). Functional requirements are the inputs of development and can be tested in isolation, utilising either manual or automated tests. In contrast, some NFRs are difficult to test without functionality, for NFRs are often aspects of functionality and express quality aspects. Lacking this testability attribute makes NFR testing complicated and, therefore, underrepresented in industrial practice. However, the emergence of CI has radically affected software development and created new avenues for software quality evaluation and quality information acquisition. Research has, consequently, been devoted to the utilisation of this additional information for more efficient and effective NFR verification.

Objective

We aim to identify the state-of-the-art of utilising the CI environment for NFR testing, hereinafter referred to as CI-NFR testing.

Method

Through rigorous selection, from an initial set of 747 papers, we identified 47 papers that describe how NFRs are tested in a CI environment. Evidence-based analysis, through coding, is performed on the identified papers in this SLR.

Results

Firstly, ten CI approaches are described by the papers selected, each describing different tools and nine different NFRs where reported to be tested. Secondly, although possible, CI-NFR testing is associated with eight challenges that adversely affect its adoption. Thirdly, the identified CI-NFR testing processes are tool-driven, but there is a lack of NFR testing tools that can be used in the CI environment. Finally, we proposed a CI framework for NFRs testing.

Conclusion

A synthesised CI framework is proposed for testing various NFRs, and associated CI tools are also mapped. This contribution is valuable as results of the study also show that CI-NFR testing can help improve the quality of NFR testing in practices.

Keywords
Agile, Continuous integration, CI, DevOps, Non-functional requirement, NFR, Scaled agile framework, SAFe
National Category
Information Systems Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79434 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.106199 (DOI)000496874400005 ()2-s2.0-85073572821 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

We would like to acknowledge that this work was supported by the KKS foundation through the S.E.R.T. Research Profile project at Blekinge Institute of Technology.

Available from: 2020-01-28 Created: 2020-01-28 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladnicki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2019). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context.

Objective: We aim to collect data related to engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-up companies to ascertain trends and patterns characterizing engineering work in start-ups. Such data allows researchers to understand better how goals and challenges are related to practices. This understanding can then inform future studies aimed at designing solutions addressing those goals and challenges. Besides, these trends and patterns can be useful for practitioners to make more informed decisions in their engineering practice.

Method: We use a case survey method to gather first-hand, in-depth experiences from a large sample of software start-ups. We use open coding and cross-case analysis to describe and identify patterns, and corroborate the findings with statistical analysis.

Results: We analyze 84 start-up cases and identify 16 goals, 9 challenges, and 16 engineering practices that are common among startups. We have mapped these goals, challenges, and practices to start-up life-cycle stages (inception, stabilization, growth, and maturity). Thus, creating the progression model guiding software engineering efforts in start-ups.

Conclusions: We conclude that start-ups to a large extent face the same challenges and use the same practices as established companies. However, the primary software engineering challenge in start-ups is to evolve multiple process areas at once, with a little margin for serious errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Software start-up, software engineering practices, progression model
National Category
Software Engineering Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Information technology; Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72484 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Papatheocharous, E., Wnuk, K., Borg, M., Alégroth, E. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Component attributes and their importance in decisions and component selection. Software quality journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Component attributes and their importance in decisions and component selection
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2019 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Component-based software engineering is a common approach in the development and evolution of contemporary software systems. Different component sourcing options are available, such as: (1) Software developed internally (in-house), (2) Software developed outsourced, (3) Commercial off-the-shelf software, and (4) Open-Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The objective of this study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners when they decide to select a component. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using compositional data analysis. The results of this exploratory analysis showed that cost was clearly considered to be the most important attribute for component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: support of the componentlongevity prediction, and level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Moreover, several practitioners still consider in-house software development to be the sole option when adding or replacing a component. On the other hand, there is a trend to complement it with other component sourcing options and, apart from cost, different attributes factor into their decision. Furthermore, in our analysis, nonparametric tests and biplots were used to further investigate the practitioners’ inherent characteristics. It seems that smaller and larger organizations have different views on what attributes are the most important, and the most surprising finding is their contrasting views on the cost attribute: larger organizations with mature products are considerably more cost aware.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Component-based software engineering, Component sourcing options, Decision making, Compositional data analysis, Cumulative voting
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76412 (URN)10.1007/s11219-019-09465-2 (DOI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Requirements’ Characteristics: How do they Impact on Project Budget in a Systems Engineering Context?. In: 2019 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA): Proceedings. Paper presented at 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2019), Kallithea-Chalkidiki, Greece, August 28-30, 2019 (pp. 260-267). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements’ Characteristics: How do they Impact on Project Budget in a Systems Engineering Context?
2019 (English)In: 2019 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA): Proceedings, IEEE, 2019, p. 260-267Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Requirements engineering is of a prin- cipal importance when starting a new project. However, the number of the requirements involved in a single project can reach up to thousands. Controlling and assuring the quality of natural language requirements (NLRs), in these quantities, is challenging.

Aims: In a field study, we investigated with the Swedish Transportation Agency (STA) to what extent the characteristics of requirements had an influence on change requests and budget changes in the project.

Method: We choose the following models to characterize system requirements formulated in natural language: Concern- based Model of Requirements (CMR), Requirements Abstrac- tions Model (RAM) and Software-Hardware model (SHM). The classification of the NLRs was conducted by the three authors. The robust statistical measure Fleiss’ Kappa was used to verify the reliability of the results. We used descriptive statistics, contingency tables, results from the Chi-Square test of association along with post hoc tests. Finally, a multivariate statistical technique, Correspondence analysis was used in order to provide a means of displaying a set of requirements in two-dimensional graphical form.

Results: The results showed that software requirements are associated with less budget cost than hardware requirements. Moreover, software requirements tend to stay open for a longer period indicating that they are ”harder” to handle. Finally, the more discussion or interaction on a change request can lower the actual estimated change request cost.

Conclusions: The results lead us to a need to further investigate the reasons why the software requirements are treated differently from the hardware requirements, interview the project managers, understand better the way those requirements are formulated and propose effective ways of Software management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Requirements Engineering, Natural Language Requirements (NLRs), Project budget, Software Management
National Category
Software Engineering Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79433 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2019.00048 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076017569 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-3422-2 (ISBN)978-1-7281-3421-5 (ISBN)
Conference
45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2019), Kallithea-Chalkidiki, Greece, August 28-30, 2019
Note

Funding Agencies:

KKS foundation through the S.E.R.T. Research Profile project at Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH)

ERSAK project at Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Agency (STA)

Available from: 2020-01-28 Created: 2020-01-28 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
Borg, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Wnuk, K., Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Axelsson, J. (2019). Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions. Information and Software Technology, 112, 18-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions
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2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components.

Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection.

Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire.

Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality.

Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Component-based software engineering, Sourcing, Software architecture, Decision making, Survey
National Category
Information Systems Software Engineering
Research subject
Informatics; Information technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-73928 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.03.015 (DOI)000469899100002 ()2-s2.0-85064013176 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

ORION project from The Stiftelsen for Kunskapsoch Kompetensutveckling in Sweden  20140218

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Smite, D., van Solingen, R. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2019). The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India. IEEE Software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development is proved to be very challenging with many referenced problems, such as low productivity and quality, and high extra costs. One main reason for many challenges that is often overlooked is high employee turnover. In developing locations, such as India, turnover is significantly larger due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should then companies not source to countries with high turnover rates? Or are there any other strategies to apply? This research attempts to gain a better understanding of the impacts of employee turnover in offshoring to India and the strategies to address it. We share experience from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the true turnover state and its severe negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward strategies to either reduce the turnover or combat its negative impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Software Engineering, Management, Knowledge management
National Category
Information Systems Software Engineering
Research subject
Information technology; Informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72483 (URN)10.1109/MS.2018.2886179 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S., Petersen, K. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2019). Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners' experience. Journal of Systems and Software, 156, 1-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners' experience
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study.

Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2).

Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs' suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study.

Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs' suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice.

Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Agile practice, Introduction strategies, Agile matunty model
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76751 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.035 (DOI)000483658000001 ()
Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Angelis, L., Mittas, N. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2018). A Framework of Statistical and Visualization Techniques for Missing Data Analysis in Software Cost Estimation. In: Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Computer Systems and Software Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 433-460). IGI Global
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework of Statistical and Visualization Techniques for Missing Data Analysis in Software Cost Estimation
2018 (English)In: Computer Systems and Software Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, IGI Global, 2018, p. 433-460Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Software Cost Estimation (SCE) is a critical phase in software development projects. However, due to the growing complexity of the software itself, a common problem in building software cost models is that the available datasets contain lots of missing categorical data. The purpose of this chapter is to show how a framework of statistical, computational, and visualization techniques can be used to evaluate and compare the effect of missing data techniques on the accuracy of cost estimation models. Hence, the authors use five missing data techniques: Multinomial Logistic Regression, Listwise Deletion, Mean Imputation, Expectation Maximization, and Regression Imputation. The evaluation and the comparisons are conducted using Regression Error Characteristic curves, which provide visual comparison of different prediction models, and Regression Error Operating Curves, which examine predictive power of models with respect to under- or over-estimation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2018
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76036 (URN)10.4018/978-1-5225-3923-0.ch017 (DOI)9781522539230 (ISBN)9781522539247 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Ouriques, R. & Gonzalez-Huerta, J. (2018). Approaching the Relative Estimation Concept with Planning Poker. In: CSERC '18 The 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, October 10 - 12, 2018: The 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, October 10 - 12, 2018. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference (pp. 21-25). ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching the Relative Estimation Concept with Planning Poker
2018 (English)In: CSERC '18 The 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, October 10 - 12, 2018: The 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, October 10 - 12, 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 21-25Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Simulation is a powerful instrument in the education process that can help students experience a reality context and understand complex concepts required to accomplish practitioners’ tasks. The present study aims to investigate the software engineering students’ perception about the usefulness of the Planning Poker technique in relation to their understanding of the relative estimation concept. We conducted a simulation exercise where students first estimated tasks applying the concepts of relative estimation based on the concepts explained in the lecture, and then to estimate tasks applying the Agile Planning Poker technique. To investigate the students’ perception, we used a survey at the end of each exercise. The preliminary results did not show statistical significance on the students’ confidence to estimate relatively the user stories. However, from the students’ comments and feedback, there are indications that students are more confident in using Agile Planning Poker when they are asked to estimate user stories. The study will be replicated in the near future to a different group of students with a different background, to have a better understanding and also identify possible flaws of the exercise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2018
Keywords
Simulation, Software Engineering, Learning, Agile Planning Poker
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects Educational Sciences Pedagogical Work Didactics
Research subject
Information technology; Informatics; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72485 (URN)10.1145/3289406.3289409 (DOI)978-1-4503-6624-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 7th Computer Science Education Research Conference
Available from: 2019-02-14 Created: 2019-02-14 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0311-1502

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