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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Ravi, V., Alazab, M., Srinivasan, S., Arunachalam, A. & Soman, K. (2023). Adversarial Defense: DGA-Based Botnets and DNS Homographs Detection Through Integrated Deep Learning. IEEE transactions on engineering management, 70(1), 249-266
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adversarial Defense: DGA-Based Botnets and DNS Homographs Detection Through Integrated Deep Learning
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2023 (English)In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 249-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cybercriminals use domain generation algorithms (DGAs) to prevent their servers from being potentially blacklisted or shut down. Existing reverse engineering techniques for DGA detection is labor intensive, extremely time-consuming, prone to human errors, and have significant limitations. Hence, an automated real-time technique with a high detection rate is warranted in such applications. In this article, we present a novel technique to detect randomly generated domain names and domain name system (DNS) homograph attacks without the need for any reverse engineering or using nonexistent domain (NXDomain) inspection using deep learning. We provide an extensive evaluation of our model over four large, real-world, publicly available datasets. We further investigate the robustness of our model against three different adversarial attacks: DeepDGA, CharBot, and MaskDGA. Our evaluation demonstrates that our method is effectively able to identify DNS homograph attacks and DGAs and also is resilient to common evading cyberattacks. Promising results show that our approach provides a more effective detection rate with an accuracy of 0.99. Additionally, the performance of our model is compared against the most popular deep learning architectures. Our findings highlight the essential need for more robust detection models to counter adversarial learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Keywords
Botnet, cybercrime, cyber security, deep learning (DL), DNS attacks, domain generation algorithms (DGAs), domain name system (DNS), malware
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-91572 (URN)10.1109/TEM.2021.3059664 (DOI)000732665500001 ()
Available from: 2021-05-04 Created: 2021-05-04 Last updated: 2023-02-02Bibliographically approved
Arunachalam, A., Ravi, V., Acharya, V. & Pham, T. D. (2023). Toward Data-Model-Agnostic Autonomous Machine-Generated Data Labeling and Annotation Platform: COVID-19 Autoannotation Use Case. IEEE transactions on engineering management, 70(8), 2695-2706
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Data-Model-Agnostic Autonomous Machine-Generated Data Labeling and Annotation Platform: COVID-19 Autoannotation Use Case
2023 (English)In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 2695-2706Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quick, early, and precise detection is important for diagnosis to control the spread of COVID-19 infection. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology could certainly be used as a modulating tool to ease the detection, and help with the preventive steps further. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance in many visual recognition tasks. Nevertheless, most of these state-of-the-art networks highly rely on the availability of a high amount of labeled data, being an essential step in supervised machine learning tasks. Conventionally, this manual, mundane, and time-consuming process of annotating images is done by humans. Learning to localize or detect COVID-19 infection masks in our specific case study typically requires the collection of CT scan data that has been labeled with bounding boxes or similar annotations, which generally is limited. A technique that could perform such learning with much less annotations, and transfer the learned proposals that are algorithm-driven to generate more synthetic annotated samples would be helpful & quite valuable. We present such a technique inspired by weakly trained mask region based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN) architecture for localization, in which the number of images with their pixel-level masks can be a small proportion of the total dataset, and then further improvise CNNs by inversely generating dense annotations on-the-go using an algorithmic-based computational approach. We focus on alleviating the bottleneck associated with deep learning models needing annotated data for training in an intuitive reverse engineering fashion through this work. Our proposed solution can certainly provide the prospect of automated labeling on-the-fly, thereby reducing much of the manual work. As a result, one can quickly train a precise COVID-19 infection detector with the leverage of autonomous frame-by-frame machine generated annotations. The model achieved mean precision accuracy (%) of 0.99, 0.931, and 0.8 for train, validation, and test set, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can be adopted in a clinical setting for assisting radiologists, and also our fully autonomous approach can be generalized to any detection/recognition tasks at ease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Keywords
Artificial intelligence (AI), assisted annotations, annotations, autoannotation pipeline, autolabeling, CT scan, machine labels, mask region based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN), synthetic annotations
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-93374 (URN)10.1109/TEM.2021.3094544 (DOI)000732657900001 ()2-s2.0-85112666314 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-05 Created: 2021-08-05 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Sureshkumar, V., Balasubramaniam, S., Ravi, V. & Arunachalam, A. (2022). A hybrid optimization algorithm-based feature selection for thyroid disease classifier with rough type-2 fuzzy support vector machine. Expert systems (Print), 39(1), Article ID e12811.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A hybrid optimization algorithm-based feature selection for thyroid disease classifier with rough type-2 fuzzy support vector machine
2022 (English)In: Expert systems (Print), ISSN 0266-4720, E-ISSN 1468-0394, Vol. 39, no 1, article id e12811Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thyroid hormones are essential for all the metabolic and reproductive activities with significance to growth, and neuron development in the human body. The thyroid hormone dysfunction has many ill consequences, affecting the human population; thereby being a global epidemic. It is noticed that every one in 10 persons suffer from different thyroid disorders in India. In recent years, many researchers have implemented various disease predictive models based on Information and Communications Technology (ICT). Increasing the accuracy of disease classification is a critical and challenging task. To increase the accuracy of classification, in this paper, we propose a hybrid optimization algorithm-based feature selection design for thyroid disease classifier with rough type-2 fuzzy support vector machine. This work uses the hybrid optimization algorithm, which combines the firefly algorithm (FA) and butterfly optimization algorithm (BOA) to select the top-n features. The proposed hybrid firefly butterfly optimization-rough type-2 fuzzy support vector machine (HFBO-RT2FSVM) is evaluated with several key metrics such as specificity, accuracy, and sensitivity. We compare our approach with well-known benchmark methods such as improved grey wolf optimization linear support vector machine (IGWO Linear SVM) and mixed-kernel support vector machine (MKSVM) methods. From the experimental evaluations, we justify that our technique improves the accuracy by large thereby precise in identifying the thyroid disease. HFBO-RT2FSVM model attained an accuracy of 99.28%, having specificity and sensitivity of 98 and 99.2%, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
classification, clinical trial, clustering algorithm, feature selection, fuzzy sets, hormone, machine learning, optimization, support vector machines, thyroid disease
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-94590 (URN)10.1111/exsy.12811 (DOI)000697875200001 ()2-s2.0-85115291711 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-24 Created: 2021-09-24 Last updated: 2022-01-27Bibliographically approved
Arunachalam, A. & Andreasson, H. (2022). MSI-RPi: Affordable, Portable, and Modular Multispectral Imaging Prototype Suited to Operate in UV, Visible and Mid-Infrared Regions. Journal of Mobile Multimedia, 18(3), 723-742
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MSI-RPi: Affordable, Portable, and Modular Multispectral Imaging Prototype Suited to Operate in UV, Visible and Mid-Infrared Regions
2022 (English)In: Journal of Mobile Multimedia, ISSN 1550-4646, E-ISSN 1550-4654, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 723-742Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Digital plant inventory provides critical growth insights, given the associated data quality is good. Stable & high-quality image acquisition is critical for further examination. In this work, we showcase an affordable, portable, and modular spectral camera prototype, designed with open hardware’s and open-source software’s. The image sensors used were color, and infrared Pi micro-camera. The designed prototype presents the advantage as being low-cost and modular with respect to other general commercial market available spectral devices. The micro-size connected sensors make it a compact instrument that can be used for any general spectral acquisition purposes, along with the provision of custom selection of the bands, making the presented prototype design a Plug-nd-Play (PnP) setup that can be used in different wide application areas. The images acquired from our custom-built prototype were back-tested by performing image analysis and qualitative assessments. The image acquisition software, and processing algorithm has been programmed, which is bundled with our developed system. Further, an end-to-end automation script is integrated for the users to readily leverage the services on-demand. The design files, schematics, and all the related materials of the spectral block design is open-sourced with open-hardware license & is made available at https://github.com/ajayarunachalam/Multi-Spectral-Imaging-RaspberryPi-Design. The automated data acquisition scripts & the spectral image analysis done is made available at https://github.com/ajayarunachalam/SI-RPi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
River Publishers, 2022
Keywords
imaging technology, low-cost, spectral, phenotype, plant science, vision, imaging sensors, agriculture, image analysis
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-97240 (URN)10.13052/jmm1550-4646.18312 (DOI)2-s2.0-85125836417 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-07 Created: 2022-02-07 Last updated: 2022-04-22Bibliographically approved
Herdenstam, A. P. F., Kurtser, P., Swahn, J. & Arunachalam, A. (2022). Nature versus machine: A pilot study using a semi-trained culinary panel to perform sensory evaluation of robot-cultivated basil affected by mechanically induced stress. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 29, Article ID 100578.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nature versus machine: A pilot study using a semi-trained culinary panel to perform sensory evaluation of robot-cultivated basil affected by mechanically induced stress
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 29, article id 100578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a multidisciplinary approach combining technical practices with sensory data to optimize cultivation practices for production of plants using sensory evaluation and further the how it affects nutritional content. We apply sensory evaluation of plants under mechanical stress, in this case robot cultivated basil. Plant stress is a research field studying plants' reactions to suboptimal conditions leading to effects on growth, crop yield, and resilience to harsh environmental conditions. Some of the effects induced by mechanical stress have been shown to be beneficial, both in futuristic commercial growing paradigms (e.g., vertical farming), as well as in altering the plant's nutritional content. This pilot study uses established sensory methods such as Liking, Just-About-Right (JAR) and Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) to study the sensory effect of mechanical stress on cropped basil induced by a specially developed robotic platform. Three different kinds of cropped basil were evaluated: (a) mechanically stressed-robot cultivated, (b) non-stressed -robot cultivated from the same cropping bed (reference); and (c) a commercially organic produced basil. We investigated liking, critical attributes, sensory profile, and the use of a semi-trained culinary panel to make any presumptions on consumer acceptance. The semi-trained panel consisted of 24 culinary students with experience of daily judging sensory aspects of specific food products and cultivated crops. The underlying goal is to assess potential market aspects related to novel mechanical cultivation systems. Results shows that basil cropped in a controlled robot cultivated platform resulted in significantly better liking compared to commercially organic produced basil. Results also showed that mechanical stress had not negatively affected the sensory aspects, suggesting that eventual health benefits eating stressed plants do not come at the expense of the sensory experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Robot-cultivation, Mechanical stress, Morphology, Liking, Just-about-right (JAR), Check-all-that-apply (CATA)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-100722 (URN)10.1016/j.ijgfs.2022.100578 (DOI)000860652300006 ()2-s2.0-85136212484 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-19 Created: 2022-08-19 Last updated: 2022-10-05Bibliographically approved
Herdenstam, A. P. F., Kurtser, P., Swahn, J., Arunachalam, A. & Edberg, K.-M. (2022). Nature versus machine: Sensory evaluation of robot-cultivated basil affected by mechanically induced stress. In: : . Paper presented at 10th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research: A Sense of Earth (EuroSense 2022), Turku, Finland, September 13-16, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nature versus machine: Sensory evaluation of robot-cultivated basil affected by mechanically induced stress
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2022 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Biological Systematics Robotics
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-101231 (URN)
Conference
10th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research: A Sense of Earth (EuroSense 2022), Turku, Finland, September 13-16, 2022
Available from: 2022-09-14 Created: 2022-09-14 Last updated: 2022-09-14Bibliographically approved
Arunachalam, A. & Andreasson, H. (2022). RaspberryPi‐Arduino (RPA) powered smart mirrored and reconfigurable IoT facility for plant science research. Internet Technology Letters, 5(1), Article ID e272.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RaspberryPi‐Arduino (RPA) powered smart mirrored and reconfigurable IoT facility for plant science research
2022 (English)In: Internet Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2476-1508, Vol. 5, no 1, article id e272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous monitoring of crops is critical for the sustainability of agriculture. The effects of changes in temperature, light intensity, humidity, pH, soil moisture, gas intensities, etc. have an overall impact on the plant growth. Growth chambers are environmental controlled facilities which needs to be monitored round-the-clock. To improve both the reproducibility, and maintenance of such facilities, remote monitoring plays a very pivotal role. An automated re-configurable & persistent mirrored storage-based remote monitoring system is developed with low-cost open source hardwares and softwares. The system automates sensors deployment, storage (database, logs), and provides an elegant dashboard to visualize the real-time continuous data stream. We propose a new smart AGRO IoT system with robust data acquisition mechanism, and also propose two software component nodes, (i.e., Mirroring and Reconfiguration) running as an instance of the whole IoT facility. The former one is aimed to minimize/avoid the downtime, while the latter one is aimed to leverage the available cores, and better utilization of the computational resources. Our system can be easily deployed in growth chambers, greenhouses, CNC farming test-bed setup, cultivation plots, and further can be also extended to support large-farms with either using multiple individual standalone setup as heterogeneous instances of this facility, or by extending it as master-slave cluster configuration for communication as a single homogeneous instance. Our RaspberryPi-Arduino (RPA) powered solution is scalable, and provides stability for monitoring any environment continuously at ease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
Open-source, hardware, software, remote monitoring, IoT, Raspberry Pi, Arduino, sensor, database, agriculture, Plant Science, MOX, Mirroring, Reconfigurable Mircoservice, plant growth, automation, gas sensors
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-89030 (URN)10.1002/itl2.272 (DOI)000617061300001 ()2-s2.0-85147134625 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-28 Created: 2021-01-28 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
Arunachalam, A., Ravi, V., Krichen, M., Alroobaea, R. & Alqurni, J. S. (2021). Analytical Comparison of Resource Search Algorithms in Non-DHT Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks. Computers, Materials and Continua, 68(1), 983-1001
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical Comparison of Resource Search Algorithms in Non-DHT Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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2021 (English)In: Computers, Materials and Continua, ISSN 1546-2218, E-ISSN 1546-2226, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 983-1001Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the key challenges in ad-hoc networks is the resource discovery problem. How efficiently & quickly the queried resource/object can be resolved in such a highly dynamic self-evolving network is the underlying question? Broadcasting is a basic technique in the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs), and it refers to sending a packet from one node to every other node within the transmission range. Flooding is a type of broadcast where the received packet is retransmitted once by every node. The naive flooding technique floods the network with query messages, while the random walk scheme operates by contacting subsets of each node's neighbors at every step, thereby restricting the search space. Many earlier works have mainly focused on the simulation-based analysis of flooding technique, and its variants, in a wired network scenario. Although, there have been some empirical studies in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, the analytical results are still lacking, especially in the context of mobile P2P networks. In this article, we mathematically model different widely used existing search techniques, and compare with the proposed improved random walk method, a simple lightweight approach suitable for the non-DHT architecture. We provide analytical expressions to measure the performance of the different flooding-based search techniques, and our proposed technique. We analytically derive 3 relevant key performance measures, i.e., the avg. number of steps needed to find a resource, the probability of locating a resource, and the avg. number of messages generated during the entire search process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tech Science Press, 2021
Keywords
Mathematical model, MANET, P2P networks, P2P MANET, unstructured, search algorithms, Peer-to-Peer, ad-hoc, flooding, random walk, resource discovery, content discovery, mobile peer-to-peer, broadcast, peer
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-91136 (URN)10.32604/cmc.2021.015371 (DOI)000632946200008 ()2-s2.0-85103675446 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Taif University Researchers Supporting Project, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia TURSP-2020/36

Available from: 2021-04-16 Created: 2021-04-16 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Kurtser, P., Castro Alves, V., Arunachalam, A., Sjöberg, V., Hanell, U., Hyötyläinen, T. & Andreasson, H. (2021). Development of novel robotic platforms for mechanical stress induction, and their effects on plant morphology, elements, and metabolism. Scientific Reports, 11(1), Article ID 23876.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of novel robotic platforms for mechanical stress induction, and their effects on plant morphology, elements, and metabolism
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2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research evaluates the effect on herbal crops of mechanical stress induced by two specially developed robotic platforms. The changes in plant morphology, metabolite profiles, and element content are evaluated in a series of three empirical experiments, conducted in greenhouse and CNC growing bed conditions, for the case of basil plant growth. Results show significant changes in morphological features, including shortening of overall stem length by up to 40% and inter-node distances by up to 80%, for plants treated with a robotic mechanical stress-induction protocol, compared to control groups. Treated plants showed a significant increase in element absorption, by 20-250% compared to controls, and changes in the metabolite profiles suggested an improvement in plants' nutritional profiles. These results suggest that repetitive, robotic, mechanical stimuli could be potentially beneficial for plants' nutritional and taste properties, and could be performed with no human intervention (and therefore labor cost). The changes in morphological aspects of the plant could potentially replace practices involving chemical treatment of the plants, leading to more sustainable crop production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-95952 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-02581-9 (DOI)000729935300061 ()34903776 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121055500 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agency:

Örebro University

Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Paul, S., Arunachalam, A., Khodadad, D., Andreasson, H. & Rubanenko, O. (2021). Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller for Envisioned Agricultural Manipulator. International Journal of Automation and Computing, 18(4), 568-580
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller for Envisioned Agricultural Manipulator
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2021 (English)In: International Journal of Automation and Computing, ISSN 1476-8186, E-ISSN 1751-8520, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 568-580Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation of image-based phenotyping systems has become an important aspect of crop and plant science research which has shown tremendous growth over the years. Accurate determination of features using images requires stable imaging and very precise processing. By installing a camera on a mechanical arm driven by motor, the maintenance of accuracy and stability becomes non-trivial. As per the state-of-the-art, the issue of external camera shake incurred due to vibration is a great concern in capturing accurate images, which may be induced by the driving motor of the manipulator. So, there is a requirement for a stable active controller for sufficient vibration attenuation of the manipulator. However, there are very few reports in agricultural practices which use control algorithms. Although, many control strategies have been utilized to control the vibration in manipulators associated to various applications, no control strategy with validated stability has been provided to control the vibration in such envisioned agricultural manipulator with simple low-cost hardware devices with the compensation of non-linearities. So, in this work, the combination of proportional-integral-differential (PID) control with type-2 fuzzy logic (T2-F-PID) is implemented for vibration control. The validation of the controller stability using Lyapunov analysis is established. A torsional actuator (TA) is applied for mitigating torsional vibration, which is a new contribution in the area of agricultural manipulators. Also, to prove the effectiveness of the controller, the vibration attenuation results with T2-F-PID is compared with conventional PD/PID controllers, and a type-1 fuzzy PID (T1-F-PID) controller. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2021
Keywords
Proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller, fuzzy logic, precision agriculture, vibration control, stability analysis, modular manipulator, agricultural robot, computer numerical control (CNC) farming
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-91570 (URN)10.1007/s11633-021-1280-5 (DOI)000639735300003 ()2-s2.0-85104531128 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-04 Created: 2021-05-04 Last updated: 2021-11-23Bibliographically approved
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