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Nyberg, G., Barker, D. & Larsson, H. (2020). Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the educational landscape of juggling - challenging notions of ability in physical education
2020 (English)In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique-based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique-based sport performance.

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students' abilities through education.

Theory and method: The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation, we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle's and Polanyi's notions of knowing and learning. In line with a focus on the learners' perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning.

Findings: Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one's position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique-based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement 'in the right way.'

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Ability, physical education, movement education, knowing
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-79245 (URN)10.1080/17408989.2020.1712349 (DOI)000506288400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03471
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Backman, E. & Barker, D. (2020). Re-thinking pedagogical content knowledge for physical education teachers – implications for physical education teacher education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-thinking pedagogical content knowledge for physical education teachers – implications for physical education teacher education
2020 (English)In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: In this conceptual paper, we contribute to the discussion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physical education and physical education teacher education (PETE). There are two main limitations in the work inspired by Shulman’s [1987. “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57 (1): 1–21] concepts content knowledge (CK) and PCK. First, CK is exclusively interpreted as knowledge in and about movement, and excludes knowledge through movement. Second, contemporary understandings of CK and PCK have been mainly from a behaviour analytic perspective. By only adopting a behavioural perspective of CK, i.e. a perspective which aims to change students’ behaviours without necessarily changing knowledge or understanding, pre-service teachers are unlikely to reflect on context and culture or how these affect the students with whom they will work.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add a new perspective to the contemporary discussion of PCK in physical education and PETE through elaborating on how PCK could be conceptualised ‘phronetically’. We believe that contextual and situational foci of a phronetic approach constitute an important dimension of teacher knowledge, and that this dimension is not captured or made visible by behaviour analytic discourse of PCK in movement cultures.

Method: For the conceptual task of expanding our understanding of PCK, we have been inspired by Thomas [2007. Education and Theory: Strangers in Paradigms. Berkshire: McGraw Hill], Shoemaker, Tankard, and Lasorsa [2004. How to Build Social Science Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage], and Whetten [1989. “What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?” Journal Academy of Management Review 14 (4): 490–495] and their ideas of building theory through borrowing, reflective thinking, and metaphors.

Results: We outline four major assumptions made about PCK in the behaviour analytic research on physical education and PETE: 1. Physical education teachers must know how to perform activities with the correct technique, know the tactics and have knowledge about rules and etiquette; 2. Physical education teachers must know how to detect errors and design task progressions. 3. Physical education teachers must know how to select and modify appropriate tasks as well as give feedback. 4. Physical education teachers’ level of CK and PCK can be quantitatively measured.

Conclusions: From a phronetic perspective, we suggest that PCK could also involve: contextual characteristics for ‘new’ and integrative movement cultures; interpretation of students’ actions; identification and action on diversity during physical education teaching; development of a sensitivity for morally ‘right’ actions; and management of uncertainty involved in physical education teaching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80640 (URN)10.1080/17408989.2020.1734554 (DOI)000517370700001 ()
Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Janemalm, L., Barker, D. & Quennerstedt, M. (2020). Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice: a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transformation of complex movements from policy to practice: a discourse analysis of Swedish physical education teachers’ concepts of moving
2020 (English)In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: How teachers enact policy has been of significant interest to educational scholars. In physical education research, scholars have identified several factors affecting the enactment of policy. These factors include but are not limited to: structural support available for teachers, provision of professional development opportunities, the nature of the policy, and the educational philosophies of the teachers. A recurring conclusion drawn in this scholarship is that official documentation and teachers’ work often diverge, sometimes in profound ways.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how physical education teachers in Sweden describe their enactment of policy regarding the concept complex movement, which features in the latest Swedish curriculum.

Methods: Interview data were generated with six specialist physical education teachers. Three questions guided the interviews: What is complex movement? What is not complex movement? And, can you give examples from your teaching of complex movement? Data were analyzed using a discourse analytic framework. Meaning was understood as a production of dialectical relationships between individuals and social practices. Two key concepts were utilized: intertextuality, which refers to the condition whereby all communicative events, not merely utterances, draw on earlier communication events, and interdiscursivity, which refers to discursive practices in which discourse types are combined in new and complex ways.

Results: We identified three discourses regarding the teachers’ enactment of policy: (1) Complex movement as individual difficulty, (2) Complex movement as composite movements, and (3) Complex movement as situational adaptation. Several features were common to all three discourses: they were all related to issues of assessment; they suggested that complex movement is something students should be able to show or perform, and; they left open room for practically any activity done in physical education to be considered complex.

Discussion: Three issues are addressed in the Discussion. The first concerns the intertextual nature of the teachers’ statements and how the statements relate to policy and research. The second concerns the way that knowledge, and specifically movement knowledge, becomes problematic in the teachers’ statements about complex movement. The third concerns more broadly the language used to describe the relationship between policy and practice.

Conclusions: We propose that modest levels of overlap between teachers’ discursive resources, policy, and research is unsurprising. In line with earlier research, we suggest that the notion of ‘enactment’ is a more productive way to describe policy-oriented practice than notions such as ‘implementation’ or ‘translation’, which imply a uni-directional, linear execution of policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Physical education, curriculum, complexity, discourse analysis
National Category
Educational Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80523 (URN)DOI: 10.1080/17408989.2020.1727869 (DOI)000514727400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03471
Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, R. & Barker, D. (2019). Implementing the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) in physical education: empirical findings focusing on student learning. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) in physical education: empirical findings focusing on student learning
2019 (English)In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite the existence of numerous pedagogical models, Aggerholm, Standal, Barker and Larsson [2018. Aggerholm, K., O. Standal, D. M. Barker, and H. Larsson. 2018. "On Practising in Physical Education: Outline for a Pedagogical Model." Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 23 (2): 197-208] recently made a case for the introduction of a new model. Based on the work of German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, the Movement-Oriented Practising Model (MPM) contains a philosophical rationale, a set of guiding principles, and an illustration of how lessons based on the model could look in the classroom. This paper reports empirical findings from an investigation in which the model was employed. The aim was to discern how students' movement dispositions develop when they take part in lessons guided by the MPM.

Method: Empirical material was produced with one ninth-grade class that took part in ten lessons based on the MPM. Three types of empirical material were generated through observations, focus group interviews, and textual work produced by students. Analysis of the combined data was informed by Gilbert Ryle's [2009. The Concept of Mind. New York: Routledge] theory of knowing and dispositions.

Findings: Four descriptive cases are presented. Each case focuses on a student's dispositional development over the course of the ten lessons. Dispositional development involved changes in: the ways students moved, the students' approaches to practicing and performing, and the ways the students described themselves and their learning.

Discussion: The findings are discussed in relation to the philosophy and guiding principles of the MPM. Specifically, we consider: (1) how students developed in unique and personal ways during the module, (2) how dispositional development may not always be observable when students participate in lessons based on the MPM, and, (3) how time impacts upon learning when employing the MPM.

Conclusion: Reflections on practical implications associated with the MPM are put forward and questions for further scholarly consideration are raised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Movement, pedagogical model, practising, praxis-related research
National Category
Educational Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75207 (URN)10.1080/17408989.2019.1635106 (DOI)000473870600001 ()
Available from: 2019-07-26 Created: 2019-07-26 Last updated: 2019-07-26Bibliographically approved
Barker, D. (2019). In defence of white privilege: physical education teachers’ understandings of their work in culturally diverse schools. Sport, Education and Society, 24(2), 134-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In defence of white privilege: physical education teachers’ understandings of their work in culturally diverse schools
2019 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 134-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research suggests that physical education (PE) in Western countries is notproviding equitable experiences for non-white students. Responsibility forshortcomings has often been ascribed to white PE teachers. Scholars haveclaimed that teachers lack cultural competence and know little about howphysical cultures or health are understood by the young people withwhom they work. The objective of this investigation was to investigatethis claim and generate an understanding of how white PE teachers in aculturally diverse high school make sense of their work with non-whitestudents. Data with three Swedish teachers of varying experience wereproduced using semi-structured interviewing. A series of school visitsprovided a complementary line of data. Four themes emerged from thedata. These related to: (1) differences between white and non-whitevalues; (2) the knowledge and dispositions necessary for success in PE; (3)the broad purpose of PE, and; (4) the differences between boys’ and girls’experiences of PE. Data were interpreted using a Critical Race Theory(CRT) perspective, with the notion of ‘whiteness’ providing a specificanalytic concept. The general thesis developed in the second part of thepaper is that problems result not from insensitivity or incompetence butfrom discourses of whiteness in which many teachers live and work. Bybuilding on critical research both in general education and physicaleducation literature and by utilizing whiteness as an analytical concept,the investigation shows how three PE teachers draw extensively on theracial discourse of whiteness and how this disadvantages non-whitestudents. The paper is concluded with a consideration of how racialdisadvantage could be challenged or disrupted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Race, ethnicity, cultural diversity, critical race theory, whiteness, equity
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77414 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2017.1344123 (DOI)000454911600003 ()2-s2.0-85021092828 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2015-0061
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Barker, D., Nyberg, G. & Larsson, H. (2019). Joy, fear and resignation: Investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach. Sport, Education and Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joy, fear and resignation: Investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach
2019 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention fromscholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotionssignificantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy andpleasure are necessary for continued participation in movementactivities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature,however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mentalstates that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we workwith alternative principles that can create new understandings of theaffective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We drawon symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodalcommunicative resources that are performed in social contexts. Fromthis perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigatedas part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical actionand (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We presentobservational material generated with PE teacher education students asthey develop movement capability. We focus on three interactionalepisodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by studentsinteracting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case,we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with themovement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizableidentity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in theinteractional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that assymbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actorswithin movement learning environments. The paper is concluded withreflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners alongwith a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Emotion, interaction, movement capability, learning, identity, physical education teacher education
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77410 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2019.1672148 (DOI)000489952000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03471
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
SueSee, B. & Barker, D. (2019). Self-Reported and observed teaching styles of Swedish physical education teachers. Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, 10(1), 34-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Reported and observed teaching styles of Swedish physical education teachers
2019 (English)In: Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 34-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Physical education scholars have identified a number of factors thataffect how teachers translate policy into practice. It is becomingclear that to create learning experiences that reflect the intentionof guiding documents, teachers need to employ appropriateteaching styles. The aim of this paper was to determine whetherthe teaching styles used by a group of PE teachers provideopportunities for students to meet objectives relating to creativity,problem solving, personal responsibility and independence. Thefirst part of the investigation involved the use of a questionnairebased on Mosston and Ashworth’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles(Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2002). Teaching physical education(5th ed.). Boston: Benjamin Cummings. (United States). Thesecond part involved observations of six primary and middleschool teachers’ physical education lessons. The results suggestthat PE teachers may not use different pedagogies for differentreasons. The paper is concluded with a consideration of how ateaching styles framework can help teachers to meet diversecurriculum objectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Spectrum of teaching styles, Swedish curriculum, curriculum alignment, pedagogy
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77416 (URN)10.1080/25742981.2018.1552498 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067694377 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Rönnqvist, M., Larsson, H., Nyberg, G. & Barker, D. (2019). Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education. Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, 10(2), 172-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education
2019 (English)In: Curriculum Studies in Physical Education and Health, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a substantial body of physical education scholarshipfocusing on movement learning. The question of how pupilsthemselves make sense of movement learning has however,largely escaped attention. Answers to such a question wouldseem to be highly germane if educators are to engage in pupilcenteredpedagogies. In light of this absence, the aim of thisinvestigation was to describe how movement learners madesense of their own movement development. Drawing ontheoretical tenets of Gilbert Ryle (2009. The concept of mind.New York, NY: Routledge) and Michael Polanyi (1969. Knowing andbeing. Essays by Michael Polanyi. Chicago, IL: University of ChicagoPress), three cases from an investigation in which movementlearning was occurring are presented. The investigation wasconducted during a physical education project week with pupilsfrom an upper secondary school. Data were produced usingobservations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews, andresearch diaries as a group of pupils learned to juggle. The resultssuggest that: the aspects of moving to which learners attendchange as they learn; learners have a relatively limited capacity toverbally articulate what they learn, and; learners’ expectations ofideal ways of moving have considerable impact on how theycome to make sense of their own ways of moving. The practicalimplications of these points are discussed in the final section ofthe paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Movement learning; awareness; sense making; knowledge; Polanyi; Ryle
National Category
Learning
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77413 (URN)10.1080/25742981.2019.1601499 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066850399 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03471
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
Janemalm, L., Quennerstedt, M. & Barker, D. (2019). What is complex in complex movement? A discourse analysis of conceptualizations of movement in the Swedish physical education curriculum. European Physical Education Review, 25(4), 1146-1160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is complex in complex movement? A discourse analysis of conceptualizations of movement in the Swedish physical education curriculum
2019 (English)In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1146-1160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2011, the Swedish National Agency for Education introduced a new national curriculum. Thecurriculum contained a number of new terms. One in particular proved problematic for physicaleducators – complex movement. The confusion surrounding the term could be seen as somewhatunexpected since movement is and has been a central element of practically all physical education(PE) curricula. The specific aim of this paper is to identify how the discourse regarding complexmovement is assembled, and by doing so, provide insights into the meaning(s) of complexmovement within the context of PE policy in Sweden. Following Englund and Quennerstedt (2008),the study is framed within a Swedish curriculum theory tradition and six policy texts are examinedusing a discourse analytic methodology. The results suggest three different inferences of complexmovement discourse: advanced with a wide meaning; context-dependent and related to sports forolder pupils; and knowledge-dependent where different views about knowledge exist. From theseresults, three discussion points are raised related to: the diversity of possible meanings presentedin policy; the connection between knowledge and understanding; and the probability of differentaudiences reading the texts in different ways. The paper is concluded with a consideration of theconsequences of different inferences concerning complex movement and whether greater consensusis necessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
Complex movement, curriculum transformation, discourse analysis, physical education
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77415 (URN)10.1177/1356336X18803977 (DOI)000486166500014 ()
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Aarskog, E., Barker, D. & Spord Borgen, J. (2019). What were you thinking? A methodological approach for exploring decision-making and learning in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 24(8), 828-840
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What were you thinking? A methodological approach for exploring decision-making and learning in physical education
2019 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 828-840Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The broad purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship betweendecision-making and learning. Specifically, our aim is to propose amethodology that provides a theoretical framing along with proceduresfor investigating this relationship in Physical Education (PE). By utilizingselected parts of John Dewey’s educational theories, the paper presentsa theoretical exposition of decision-making as an individual processcontaining both ‘practical’ and ‘cognitive’ aspects. By combining thistheoretical conceptualization with a description of concrete researchmethods, the paper proposes a methodological approach enablingresearchers to get empirically closer to the phenomenon of individualdecision-making within PE learning. We argue that by doing so,researchers in the field of PE can study certain aspects of learning notexplicitly emphasized within existing methodological approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Physical education, decisionmaking, learning, methodology, Dewey
National Category
Learning
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-77417 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2018.1491836 (DOI)000482956600004 ()2-s2.0-85049001190 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
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