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Dubocq, F., Wang, T., Yeung, L. W. Y., Sjöberg, V. & Kärrman, A. (2020). Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(1), 245-254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis
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2020 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are widely used to extinguish liquid fires due to their film-forming properties. AFFF formulation historically contains per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that can be very persistent and pose a health risk to biota and humans. Detailed analysis of the chemical composition of AFFFs can provide a better understanding on the potential environmental impact of the ingredients. In this study, a novel workflow combining target analysis, nontarget screening analysis (NTA), total fluorine (TF) analysis, and inorganic fluoride (IF) analysis was applied to disclose the chemical composition of 24 foams intended for liquid fires. Foams marketed as containing PFASs as well as fluorine-free foams were included. By comparing the sum of targeted PFASs and total organofluorine concentrations, a mass balance of known and unknown organofluorine could be calculated. Known organofluorine accounted for <1% in most fluorine-containing AFFFs, and it was confirmed that the foams marketed as fluorine-free did not contain measurable amounts of organofluorine substances. Five fluorinated substances were tentatively identified, and non-fluorinated zwitterionic betaine compounds, which are considered to be replacement substances for PFASs, were tentatively identified in the organofluorine-free foams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACS Publications, 2020
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78825 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.9b05440 (DOI)000506723200027 ()31789512 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies AgencyKnowledge Foundation
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Chemicals Agency

Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Schönlau, C., Larsson, M., Dubocq, F., Rotander, A., Van der Zande, R., Engwall, M. & Kärrman, A. (2019). Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To facilitate the study of potential harmful compounds sorbed to microplastics, an effect-directed analysis using the DR CALUX® assay as screening tool for Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds in extracts of marine deployed microplastics and chemical analysis of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) was conducted. Pellets of three plastic polymers [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)] were deployed at Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for up to 8 months. Detected AhR-mediated potencies (bio-TEQs) of extracted plastic pellets ranged from 15 to 100 pg/g. Contributions of target HOCs to the overall bioactivities were negligible. To identify the major contributors, remaining plastic pellets were used for fractionation with a gas chromatography (GC) fractionation platform featuring parallel mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The bioassay analysis showed two bioactive fractions of each polymer with bio-TEQs ranging from 5.7 to 14 pg/g. High resolution MS was used in order to identify bioactive compounds in the fractions. No AhR agonists could be identified in fractions of HDPE or LDPE. Via a multivariate statistical approach the polystyrene (PS) trimer 1e- Phenyl-4e-(1- phenylethyl)-tetralin was identified in fractions of HIPS and in fractions of the blank polymer of HIPS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
polyethylene, polystyrene, PCBs, reporter gene assay, fractionation
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75769 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00120 (DOI)000478726600002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5583-8976

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