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The power of action and knowledge in episodic memory for school-aged children
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-6438-3800
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Developmental and cognitive research suggests that there are age-related differ-ences in children’s episodic memory across school ages due to the development of knowledge, which in turn affects memory strategy use and information pro-cessing over time. However, there are controversial findings related to devel-opmental patterns and factors involved in children’s episodic memory function.

This dissertation studies action memory, a form of episodic memory, across school ages to explore developmental differences and children’s memory per-formance as related to different encoding conditions, retrieval modes, materi-als, and events. In study I, the effects of different encoding conditions (i.e., verbal tasks, VTs; experimenter-performed tasks, EPTs; and subject-performed tasks, SPTs) and memory tests (i.e., recall and recognition) were examined across school ages. This study found that the developmental pattern of action memory was more pronounced for enacted encoding than verbal encoding, the most pronounced in recall test than in recognition test. In study II, the recall period of enactment effects and the effects of task difficulty were investigated as functions of age and encoding conditions in school-aged children. The results revealed that enacted encoding not only outperformed verbal encoding but also that the response speed increased over the recall period, the effect being more noticeable in older than younger children. Moreover, the level of task difficulty can be regarded as an important factor affecting the pattern of memory output among school-aged children. Study III explored the effect of children’s declarative knowledge on memory performance by presenting knowledge-based cues such as objects and semantic integration items. Providing cues related to children’s prior knowledge in the encoding and test phases improved memory performance, especially in older children. The overall results indicated clear-cut developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages. Episodic memory functions differed as functions of age, encoding, testing instructions, and type of event. SPTs and EPTs can improve memory function, this improvement was more pronounced in SPTs than in EPTs. The positive impact of action memory on memory performance is discussed in terms of the cognitive mechanism, memory strategies, and information processing involved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Örebro: Örebro University , 2018. , s. 80
Serie
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 42
Nyckelord [en]
Episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, subject-performed tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, verbal tasks, school-aged children, memory strategies, information processing
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66903ISBN: 978-91-7529-254-0 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-66903DiVA, id: diva2:1204499
Disputation
2018-06-15, Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L3, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-08 Skapad: 2018-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 84-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) [Forskning på konstnärlig grund] Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine action memory as a form of episodic memory among school-aged subjects. Most research on action memory has focused on memory changes in adult populations. This study explored the action memory of children over time. A total of 410 school-aged child participants, comprising 201 girls and 208 boys in four age groups (8, 10, 12, 14), were included in this study. We studied two forms of action encoding, subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs), which were compared with one verbal encoding task as a control condition. At retrieval, we used three memory tests (free recall, cued recall, and recognition). We observed significant differences in memory performance in children aged 8-14 years with respect to free recall and cued recall but not recognition. The largest memory enhancement was observed for the SPTs in the 8-14-year-old participants under all test conditions. Participants performed equally well on the free recall of SPTs and EPTs, whereas they displayed better performances on the cued recall and recognition of SPTs compared to EPTs. The strategic nature of SPTs and the distinction between item-specific information and relational information are discussed.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Nyckelord
Developmental differences, episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, school-aged children
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Tillämpad psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47908 (URN)10.1080/09658211.2015.1126607 (DOI)000392495000007 ()26711845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84951871229 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-03 Skapad: 2016-02-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-23Bibliografiskt granskad
2. A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67070 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-23 Skapad: 2018-05-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-23Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 186, s. 118-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks. Results indicate that enacted encoding has a recall advantage over verbal encoding regardless of the cue manipulations, though presenting objects and semantic-integrated items can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, providing further information about prior knowledge can directly influence memory performance across age groups. These results are discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating memory strategies and cognitive processing in school-aged children.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nyckelord
Action memory, Enactment effect, Knowledge-based cues, Objects, School-aged children, Semantic integration items
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66871 (URN)10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.011 (DOI)000432763600014 ()29705084 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046164462 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-21 Skapad: 2018-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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