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Essays on Offshoring, Labor Demand and Hypothetical Bias in Choice Experiments
Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation consists of four papers on offshoring, labor demand and hypothetical bias in travel-time stated choice experiments. They are summarized as follows. Essay 1: Firm-level Effects of Offshoring of Materials and Services on Relative Labor Demand analyzes the effect of relocation of production process abroad (offshoring), on relative labor demand for the Swedish manufacturing sector over the period 1997-2002. This essay gives no support to the expected negative effect of out-location of high-skilled activity in Swedish firms and even shows an increase in relative demand of high-skilled labor due to service offshoring. Essay 2: Labour Demand, Offshoring and Inshoring: Evidence from Swedish Firm-level Data adds to the existing literature of offshoring by simultaneously analyzing the effect of offshoring and inshoring measured as firm-level imports and exports, respectively, of intermediate goods (materials) or services on firm-level relative labor demand for high-skilled labor. The causality that we find between relative labor demand and service offshoring, cannot be established neither from goods nor services inshoring. Essay 3: Is ‘Referencing’ a Remedy to Hypothetical Bias in Value of Time Elicitation? Evidence from Economic Experiments demonstrates negative hypothetical bias, i.e. higher value of time is revealed by real choice when it is compared with the value estimated from a hypothetical choice survey. Referencing, that involves interviewing the respondents about the attributes of a reference trip that has been made and then constructing the stated choice experiment presenting variations of that trip, is tested as a suggested remedy. The results indicate that any negative hypothetical bias that would exist without referencing treatment would have been further magnified by the referencing design. Essay 4: Joint Usage of Referencing and Certainty in Travel Time Stated Choice Experiments explores the heterogeneous association of referencing with respect to self-reported choice-certainty with responses in stated choice experiments. The findings in the essay show that while uncertain respondents are more likely to accept the offer of a travel-time prolongation for monetary compensation with referencing, certain respondents tend to be less likely to accept the offer under referencing conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2018. , p. 33
Series
Örebro Studies in Economics, ISSN 1651-8896 ; 40
Keywords [en]
Offshoring, Inshoring, Firm-level Data, Relative Labor Demand, Stated Choice Experiments, Hypothetical Bias, Referencing, Certainty Calibration, Value of Time
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66590ISBN: 978-91-7529-248-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-66590DiVA, id: diva2:1197580
Public defence
2018-06-08, Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Firm-level effects of offshoring of materials and services on relative labor demand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Firm-level effects of offshoring of materials and services on relative labor demand
2016 (English)In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 152, no 2, p. 321-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on firm-level data over the period 1997-2002 for the Swedish manufacturing sector the objective of this paper is to analyze relative labor demand effects due to offshoring, separating between materials and services offshoring and also geographical location of trade partner. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that offshoring of materials or services lead to out-location of high-skilled activity in Swedish firms. Rather, this paper finds evidence that the aggregate effects from offshoring lead to increasing relative demand of high-skilled labor, mainly due to services offshoring to middle income countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
offshoring, firm-level data, relative employment, translog cost function
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47589 (URN)10.1007/s10290-015-0243-8 (DOI)000378901200004 ()2-s2.0-84954329126 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2007-0228:1
Note

An earlier version of this article is published in

Savsin, S. (2014). The skill composition in the light of sourcing:offshoring and inshoring.  (Licentiate dissertation). Örebro: Örebro University

Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
2. Labour Demand, Offshoring and Inshoring: Evidence from Swedish Firm-level Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Labour Demand, Offshoring and Inshoring: Evidence from Swedish Firm-level Data
2017 (English)In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 240-274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper was to analyse effects on firm–level relative demand for skilled labour due to imports of intermediates (offshoring) and exports of intermediates (inshoring). The study is based on a data set of Swedish manufacturing firms, 1997–2002, using trade flows in intermediate goods and services, respectively. Descriptive data show that goods inshoring is much larger than goods offshoring, while the reverse is true for services. There is, however, a strong increase in services inshoring over the study period. Controlling for potential endogeneity in offshoring and inshoring, our results indicate that there is a positive effect of services offshoring on the skill composition of workers in Swedish firms, while no such causality can be established from inshoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-35856 (URN)10.1111/twec.12396 (DOI)000396889400001 ()2-s2.0-84964389348 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-05 Created: 2014-08-05 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
3. Is 'referencing' a remedy to hypothetical bias in value of time elicitation?: Evidence from economic experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is 'referencing' a remedy to hypothetical bias in value of time elicitation?: Evidence from economic experiments
2018 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1827-1847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates that commonly used methods for eliciting value of time can give downward bias and investigates whether this can be reversed by ‘referencing’ as has been suggested (e.g., by Hensher in Transp Res B 44:735–752,2010), i.e. with attributes of choice alternatives pivoted around a recently made journey. Value-of-time choice experiments were conducted in two rounds. In the first round, real and hypothetical purchases of performance of a simple time-consuming task were done to assess hypothetical bias; in the second round, participants were asked to do hypothetical travel choices with and without ‘referencing’ to a specific occasion, to be able to test ‘referencing’ as a remedy to the bias confirmed in the first round. A negative hypothetical bias was found for allocation of time at another occasion than the present (but not for a decision concern allocation of time ‘here and now’). A striking result was held from the second round experiments: ‘referencing’ indeed affects responses, but by reducing the elicited implicit value of time, so any negative hypothetical bias that would exist without ‘referencing’ would have been further magnified by the ‘referencing’ design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Value of time, Stated choice, Certainty calibration, Referencing
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59113 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9803-1 (DOI)000452336700013 ()2-s2.0-85027365064 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
4. Joint Usage of Referencing and Certainty in Travel Time Stated Choice Experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint Usage of Referencing and Certainty in Travel Time Stated Choice Experiments
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66951 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved

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