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The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Female soccer is becoming more popular and professional in the world. There are, however, limited scientific data available on how elite female players respond to physical stress during soccer games. An effective recovery strategy following a game is important, because there are few recovery days between the games in international tournaments. The present thesis, which was designed to mirror a competitive situation, aimed to investigate changes in several physiological systems occurring in female elite players in response to two soccer games. It also aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery training on the recovery of several physiological systems. METHODS: Two elite female soccer teams played two 90-min games separated by 72 h active or passive recovery. The active recovery training (cycling at 60% HRpeak, resistance training at <50% 1RM) lasted one hour and was performed 22 and 46 h after the first game. Countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint time and isokinetic knee strength were measured before, immediately, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after the first game, and immediately after the second game. The physical stress markers (CK, urea), oxidative stress markers (e.g., GSSG, lipid peroxidation), endogenous (e.g., UA, thiols) and dietary antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols, carotenoids) and a large battery of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) were analysed in blood. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the performance parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidant levels or inflammatory response between the active and passive recovery groups. Sprint and isokinetic knee strength were reduced by the same extent after both games. CMJ decreased after the first game and remained reduced throughout the study period. Blood physical stress markers, GSSG and endogenous antioxidants increased with similar amplitude after both games together with unchanged lipid peroxidation. The dietary antioxidants showed either a rapid and persistent change (e.g., tocopherols) or a delayed rise (carotenoids) after the first game. A transient increase occurred in several pro- (e.g., IL-12, TNF-a, MCP-1), anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, INF-a) and mixed (IL-6) cytokines after the first game. Fewer cytokines increased in response to the second game. CONCLUSION: Two repeated elite female soccer games separated by 72 h induced similar acute changes in several physiological parameters. After the first game, differences in the recovery pattern of the neuromuscular parameters occurred. In particular, the slow recovery of CMJ indicates that special attention should be devoted to the training of explosive force. Furthermore, the recruitment of antioxidants in response to the transient increase in GSSG resulted in the maintenance of the redox-balance in female players. Similarly, a strong and balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurred after one single female soccer game. The consequences of the dampened cytokine response during repeated soccer games are, however, unknown. In general, the majority of the parameters had recovered prior to the second game and the physiological alterations induced by the first game did not affect the performance of players in the second game. Finally, active recovery training conducted after a soccer game does not accelerate the recovery time for neuromuscular, oxidative stress, antioxidant and inflammatory responses in elite female players.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2010. , p. 70
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535 ; 8
Keywords [en]
Football, Training, Recovery, Intermittent exercise
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10878ISBN: 978-91-7668-735-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-10878DiVA, id: diva2:321746
Public defence
2010-09-10, Hörsal G, Örebro Universitet, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
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2008 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5025 (URN)10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497 (DOI)18202563 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
2. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
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2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
Keywords
d-ROMs, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, polyphenols, intermittent exercise, endurance training
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10875 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00987.x (DOI)000279905400008 ()19706000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77955127862 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
3. Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
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2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
Keywords
Inflammation, intermittent exercise, active recovery, chemokines, training
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00989.x (DOI)000281666200006 ()19765242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956495319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
4. Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

Keywords
Intermittent exercise, training, recovery, free radicals, football
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology; Sports Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10881 (URN)
Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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