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Sediment reference concentrations of seldom monitored trace elements (Ag, Be, In, Ga, Sb, Tl) in four Swedish boreal lakes: comparison with commonly monitored elements
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, nr 2-3, s. 778-790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents reference and recent acid-leachable concentrations of some seldom monitored trace elements (SMTE; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) in sediments from four boreal oligotrophic lakes in a south to north transect in Sweden. For comparison commonly monitored trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) are included as well as those of relevance for redistribution processes (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn).

Pore water pH and the corresponding solid/solution distribution coefficients (Kd) indicated that redistribution of the elements due to acidification is minor. The depth of impact was defined as the level in the sediment where the mean values became constant on successive exclusion of metal concentrations in overlying strata. Reference concentrations were calculated below the depth of impact. The present concentration changes are estimated by the ratio between the average concentration above the depth of impact and the reference concentration.

Reference concentration ranges for the SMT-elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): Ag 0.16–0.66; Be 1.6–3.7; Ga 2.0–5.1; In 0.05–0.22; Sb 0.05–0.11 and Tl 0.17–0.70. The concentration ratios for these elements ranged in the two most southern lakes from 1.5 to 4.5 and in the two northern ones from 0.6 to 1.6. A high correlation between Kd for the SMT-elements, and iron, except for Sb and Tl, infer that the biogeochemistry of iron is quantitatively important for the accumulation of these elements.

The reference concentration ranges for the commonly monitored trace elements are (mg/kg, dry wt.): As 7.0–29.6; Cd 0.33–0.98; Co 5.7–23.8; Cr 15.2–26.1; Cu 27.6–58.4; Ni 5.4–20.8; Pb 44–96. The corresponding concentration ratios were 1.2–18 (second highest 3.9) in the two most southern lakes and 0.8–1.6 in the two northern ones. Declining ratios were found from south to north, most obvious for cobalt and zinc. The copper ratios did not show a regional pattern, partly because of the impact from old mine waste.

Increased concentrations of Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl in recent sediments up to 4.5 times the reference levels in combination with the geographical pattern infer an elevated loading of these elements.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2006. Vol. 367, nr 2-3, s. 778-790
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3058DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-3058DiVA, id: diva2:136719
Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lake sediment as environmental archive: natural and anthropogenic influence on the chronology of trace elements
2006 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this thesis is the historical pollution of some seldom-monitored trace elements (SMTEs; Ag, Be, Ga, In, Sb and Tl) that have been involuntarily released for several thousands of years but whose usage have increased during the industrial era. Sediment cores from four rural lakes in a south to north transect in central Sweden, and two urban lakes have been used as environmental archives for chronological studies. The historical development of the SMTEs is put in perspective of frequently monitored elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that serve as a well-known anthropogenic signal. Dating of the sediments is made with 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu as well as acid leachable lead and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio. The impact of diagenetic redistribution is included, when necessary.

The results show that site-specific reference concentrations are required in order to estimate the present pollution as well as its historical development. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of transport in rural lakes and the concentrations are lowered towards the north. It is not possible from this material, however, to separate the direct deposition on the lake surfaces from the contribution from their catchments. From 21Pb, acid-leachable Pb and the 206Pb/207Pb ratio a minimum of four periods of pollution can be discerned. For the SMTEs the quantitatively most important period of pollution took place from the Second World War until present. The growth of the domestic industrialisation as well as the early industrialisation of central Europe and the British Isles are also distinguishable. The pollution history of Ag, In and Sb goes back for several centuries as a result of metal processing whereas the levels of thallium mainly increase as a result of industrialisation. For Ag and Tl in-sediment diagenetic redistribution limits the precision of the historical estimate. The preliminary interpretation of 137Cs and 239,240Pu indicates that they are less suitable as chronological markers in the system studied. The urban impact on the trace metal sediment content in the urban lakes was lower than expected, except for Au. There is a large impact from hydrological conditions on the studied system why further investigations are recommended.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek, 2006. s. 54
Serie
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 9
Emneord
lake sediment, environmental pollution, trace elements, chronology, diagenesis, Ag, Be, Ga, In, Pb, Sb, Tl
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-372 (URN)91-7668-473-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2006-03-30, HSP1, Prismahuset, Örebro universitet, Örebro, 10:15
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-03-09 Laget: 2006-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert

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