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Rapid analysis of actinide isotopes using quadrupole ICP-MS for emergency preparedness and environmental monitoring
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
2007 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Transuranium elements in the environment are mainly derived from nuclear weapons testing and the nuclear fuel cycle. Of growing concern are illicit nuclear trafficking and the threat of terror acts. The development of rational methods, for environmental monitoring and for tracing sources of nuclear and radioactive materials in the environment, is constantly required.

Traditionally, the actinides have been determined by radiometric techniques. These analyses can be time consuming for elements at low concentrations and with long half-lives. This thesis addresses the determination of actinides, especially plutonium, in environmental samples with ICP-QMS (inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry). The ICP-QMS instrument was equipped with an USN (ultrasonic nebuliser), which proved to be a successful combination for the determination of plutonium at low concentrations in acidified solutions after separation with anion exchange. The detection limit for plutonium was in the range 10-30 pg/l with a RSD of 1-10%. The suitability of chemical separation was evaluated for anion exchange, liquid-liquid-extraction and extraction chromatography.

The outlined procedure, including sample dissolution, chemical separation and analysis, for determination of actinides in environmental matrices proved to be accurate and reliable. Quality assurance of the procedure was performed during an intercomparison exercise and with reference materials. The detection accuracy has also been validated with α-spectrometry and ICP-SFMS. The procedure has been applied to saline sediments and fresh water sediments as well as several fresh water matrices.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Örebro: Örebro universitetsbibliotek , 2007. , s. 67
Serie
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 10
Nyckelord [en]
quadrupole ICP-MS, actinides, plutonium, preparedness
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap Kemi Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-947ISBN: 978-91-7668-529-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-947DiVA, id: diva2:137480
Disputation
2007-03-06, Hörsal 3, Örebro universitet, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Determination of plutonium in environmental samples with quadrupole ICP-MS
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2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 275, nr 1, s. 55-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples with ultrasonic nebulisation and quadrupole ICP-MS detection was established. Techniques for sample dissolution, pre-concentration and chemical separation were evaluated and the optimal scheme outlined. Comparisons with α-spectrometry and high resolution ICP-MS confirmed the suitability of the method when applied to different environmental matrices within the global fallout concentration range in the northern hemisphere as well as more contaminated sites. Operational detection limits were 0.5–1.5 fg/l for fresh waters and 0.03–0.1 ng/kg for lake sediments and saline marsh sediments.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Berlin: Springer, 2008
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan medicinsk grundvetenskap Kemi
Forskningsämne
Kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3231 (URN)10.1007/s10967-006-7004-z (DOI)000251867200007 ()2-s2.0-37549053953 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Rapid method for ICP-MS analysis of plutonium in sediment samples
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2004 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Kemi Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3232 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea
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(Engelska)Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Kemi Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3233 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Plutonium remobilization in a humic-rich lake
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2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 277, nr 1, s. 265-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Fresh water from Lake Svartsjön, Sweden, was collected and four fractions were prepared: (1) adsorption on DEAE, (2) flocculation with Ca2+, (3) co-precipitation with Fe hydrous oxide and (4) co-precipitation with Mn hydrous oxide. The plutonium level in the lake is 65 fg/l (222 μBq/l), measured by ICP-QMS and ICP-SFMS. Pronounced accumulation in fractions (1) (34%) and (2) (66%), combined with observed levels of organic matter indicate that plutonium is predominantly associated with organic matter. Measurements of isotopic ratios indicate that 77% of the plutonium originates from weapons testing and the remaining appears to originate from the Chernobyl accident.

Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap Kemi
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3234 (URN)10.1007/s10967-008-0741-4 (DOI)000257318800041 ()2-s2.0-46449100013 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Failure of 137Cs and 239,240Pu dating of lake sediments: fallout from nuclear weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident and redistribution processes?
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(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3235 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2007-02-13 Skapad: 2007-02-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-18Bibliografiskt granskad

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