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Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden .
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1067-8627
2017 (English)In: Vascular Health and Risk Management, ISSN 1176-6344, E-ISSN 1178-2048, Vol. 13, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO(2)max);2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.

Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.

Result: cIMT (mean +/- standard deviation) was 0.50 +/- 0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8 +/- 8.5 and 42.9 +/- 9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P<0.001).

Conclusion: High aerobic fitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DOVE Medical Press Ltd. , 2017. Vol. 13, p. 91-99
Keywords [en]
cIMT, cholesterol, insulin resistance, body fat, diet, aerobic fitness
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56877DOI: 10.2147/VHRM.S125966ISI: 000396188000002PubMedID: 28352184Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85015747630OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-56877DiVA, id: diva2:1085439
Note

Funding Agency:

AFA insurance

Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Arterial stiffness and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arterial stiffness and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Atherosclerosis is a complex, chronic vessel wall disease that often leads to severe and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as myocardial infarction and stroke. CVD are the most common cause of death, both globally and in Sweden. Since most of the risk factors for atherosclerosis are preventable, it is of great importance to highlight the benefits of a healthy lifestyle to young adults who are about to create their own habits.

A general concern about physical inactivity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and high body mass are supported by reports of an increased incidence and prevalence of obesity worldwide. In addition to this, the proportion of Swedish adults with low CRF almost doubled the last 20 years and the decline in CRF is more pronounced in the youngest age group.

The scientific work presented in this thesis was carried out to investigate the impact of different lifestyle related factors on vascular status, especially arterial stiffness, in young Swedish adults. In total 840 young adults in the age range 18-25 years were recruited to the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study, to examine vascular status, biomarkers, and lifestyle related factors.

In the LBA study population of young adults in Sweden, 12% were classified as being at risk of future CVD. A high CVD risk was associated with low CRF and less physical activity. In the total study population 24% had unhealthy food habits, and 24% did not spend the recommended 30 minutes per day at moderate or vigorous intensities of physical activity. Low CRF, less physical activity, and overweight and obesity, were associated with stiffer arteries.

The results raises concerns about future CVD risk and highlights the health enhancing possibilities of high CRF and physical activity on vascular status in young Swedish adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2019. p. 98
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 201
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, pulse wave analysis, intima media thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, body composition, young adults
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75985 (URN)978-91-7529-306-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-15, Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Södra Grev Rosengatan 32, Örebro, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved

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Fernström, MariaFernberg, UlrikaEliason, GabriellaHurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

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