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Food and beverage combinations: Sommeliers' perspectives and consumer patterns in Sweden
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2435-3869
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As beverage intake can play an important part of choosing a healthy diet, it is important to increase awareness of the contribution of beverages to overall energy intake for consumers.

The professional sommelier has for a long time served as a cultural intermediary, providing guests with good food and beverage combinations. Here, a clear gap was identified between health and the current practice of sommellerie.

The aim of the thesis is to develop knowledge about food and beverage combinations by investigating the consumption patterns of a Swedish population. The thesis will also explore the sociocultural understanding of taste and the practices of professional sommeliers.

The understanding of energy contribution and beverage patterns were linked to health, which led to the suggestion that sommeliers should gain from nutritional knowledge – in particular focused on beverage. Furthermore, sommeliers talk about ‘good’ combinations as a matter of refined taste, acquired through long-term practical engagement with wine and food. Foods expressed as ‘unrefined’, could also be becoming legitimate as cultural capital when combined with the right beverage. Also, performing food and beverage combinations was a routinised activity surrounded by rules, competence and materiality and was driven by the will to satisfy guests. It was also a part of shaping of sommeliers’ identity through a continuous striving for improved competence.

Altogether, nutritional knowledge, acquisition of taste, goods reevaluation and legitimacy as well as identity shaping gives sommeliers an extended knowledge when combining food and beverage, providing guests with not only the desired taste but also the possibility of serving healthier combinations. This extends the range of workplaces for sommeliers in the restaurant industry, but also to elderly care, hospitals and the like, as all people in those environments should have the opportunity to enjoy good meals according to both taste and health considerations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2019. , p. 105
Series
Örebro Studies in Culinary Arts and Meal Science, ISSN 1652-2974 ; 14
Keywords [en]
Bourdieu, craft drinks, food pairing, meal, restaurant, riksmaten, sommelier, practice theory
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-74611ISBN: 978-91-7529-293-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-74611DiVA, id: diva2:1320609
Public defence
2019-09-20, Örebro universitet, Campus Grythyttan, Gastronomiska teatern, Sörälgsvägen 2, Grythyttan, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Beverage consumption patterns and energy contribution from beverages per meal type: results from a national dietary survey in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beverage consumption patterns and energy contribution from beverages per meal type: results from a national dietary survey in Sweden
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2018 (English)In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 21, no 18, p. 3318-3327Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Many studies of food intake have been performed and published in Sweden, but to our knowledge no studies have extensively explored the beverage consumption of the Swedish adult population. The present study aimed to describe the beverage consumption and the contribution of beverage energy (including alcohol energy) to total energy intake according to gender, region of living, meal type and day for a Swedish adult population.

Design: National dietary survey Riksmaten (2010–2011), collected by the Swedish National Food Agency.

Setting: Sweden.

Subjects: A total of 1682 participants (57 % women) reported dietary intake data during four consecutive days, specified by portion size, meal, time point, day of the week and venue. Meals were categorized as breakfast, lunch, dinner and ‘other’.

Result: The beverage reported to be consumed the most was water (ml/d), followed by coffee. Men had a higher consumption of juice, soft drinks, beer, spirits and low-alcohol beer, while the consumption of tea and water was higher for women. For both genders, milk contributed the most to beverage energy intake. Energy percentage from beverages was higher at lunch and dinner during weekends for both genders. Participants from the biggest cities in Sweden had a higher consumption of wine for both genders and tea for men than participants from other regions.

Conclusions: A considerable part of total energy intake was contributed by beverages, especially for men. Beverages can contribute to a more enjoyable diet, but at the same time provide energy, sugar and alcohol in amounts that do not promote optimal health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
Beverage consumption, Food habits, National dietary surveys, Weekday weekend, Adults, Alcoholic intake, Riksmaten
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69439 (URN)10.1017/S1368980018002537 (DOI)000454696300004 ()30295227 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055257210 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Örebro University 

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
2. Food and beverage dinner combinations, patterns among Swedish adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food and beverage dinner combinations, patterns among Swedish adults
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, ISSN 1878-450X, E-ISSN 1878-4518, Vol. 14, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Since the taste preferences of food and beverage combinations are considered subjective properties and have been studied in several different ways, mainly within the field of sensory science, this study contributes to the field of food and beverage combination studies by using self-reported eating habits.

Objective: This article explores the relationships between food and beverage combinations, recorded by a Swedish adult population.

Method: Analyses were made using data from the national dietary survey, Riksmaten (2010–2011), performed by the Swedish National Food Agency. A total of 1753 Swedish adults (53% women) aged 18–80 contributed dietary intake data during four consecutive days. All dinner choices were categorized into beverage categories and food categories. Combinations between beverage and food categories were analyzed by using cross tabulation. Correlation coefficients for non-parametric variables were used to determine the association power. Predictive factors for more important beverage and food combinations were explored by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Water was the most frequent choice in combination with all food categories. The results also showed that alcoholic beverages are present in two of the three strongest food and beverage correlations, the spirits drinks and white wine. The most important predictive factors were where the dinner took place for non-alcoholic combinations (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 2.28–8.21) and age and employment for alcoholic combinations (OR > 2; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results show correlations in reported consumption of food and beverage, which explain the occurrences of specific patterns of combinations of food and beverage. More studies on choice of beverage are needed to describe the patterns of intake, in order to understand the mechanisms behind beverage choice, in different settings, cultural situations and lifestyle backgrounds. Combinations in everyday life are described here and these are not always so sophisticated, rather building on availability than on optimal taste combinations. Our findings can offer an understanding of some common every-day choices to culinary professionals, useful for their guidance of food and beverage pairing, to enhance restaurant experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Drink, Consumption, Wine pairing, Commensality, Food habits, National dietary surveys, Alcohol intake, Riksmaten
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69446 (URN)10.1016/j.ijgfs.2018.08.003 (DOI)000452329100004 ()2-s2.0-85053321018 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
3. Acquiring taste: Sommeliers on ‘good’ food and beverage combinations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acquiring taste: Sommeliers on ‘good’ food and beverage combinations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75833 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
4. Sommeliers’ food and beverage combinations – social conventions and professional identity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sommeliers’ food and beverage combinations – social conventions and professional identity
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75834 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved

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