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Body composition is a strong predictor of local carotid stiffness in Swedish, young adults: the cross sectional Lifestyle, biomarkers, and atherosclerosis study
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. (Cardiovascular Research Center)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6520-9265
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; CARIM, School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. (Cardiovascular Research Center)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1067-8627
2019 (English)In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last four decades, especially in young adults, and is of growing concern since it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We explored how different body composition measurements are associated with intima media thickness (cIMT) and local stiffness in the common carotid artery, in a subsample of healthy, young women and men, from the Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) Study.

METHODS: From the LBA study, a subsample of 220 randomly selected, self-reported healthy individuals, 18-25 years old, were collected for the automatized local stiffness measurements; arterial distensibility, Young's elastic modulus, and β stiffness index. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured using automatic blood pressure equipment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, waist circumference was measured, and percentage of body fat assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. The carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and analyzed using B-mode edge wall tracking. cIMT was measured and local stiffness measurements were calculated with carotid blood pressure, measured with applanation tonometry.

RESULTS: No association was found between cIMT and body composition. Local carotid stiffness was associated with body composition, and women had less stiff arteries than men (p < 0.001). Of the local stiffness measurements, arterial distensibility had the strongest associations with body composition measurements in both women and men (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI in women and BMI and percentage of body fat in men had the highest impact on arterial distensibility (p < 0.01 in both women and men).

CONCLUSIONS: Arterial distensibility was the local stiffness measurement with the strongest associations to different body composition measurements, in both women and men. In this age group, body composition measurements seem to be stronger predictors of common carotid arterial stiffness than MAP, and is a convenient way of detecting young adults who need cardiovascular risk follow-up and lifestyle counseling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019. Vol. 19, no 1, article id 205
Keywords [en]
Arterial distensibility, Arterial stiffness, Body composition, Carotid artery, Cross-sectional study, Epidemiological, Intima media thickness, Young adults
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76105DOI: 10.1186/s12872-019-1180-6ISI: 000483032600001PubMedID: 31455254Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85071644915OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-76105DiVA, id: diva2:1349814
Note

Funding Agency:

Asset Management Arm (AFA)  130275

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Arterial stiffness and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arterial stiffness and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Atherosclerosis is a complex, chronic vessel wall disease that often leads to severe and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as myocardial infarction and stroke. CVD are the most common cause of death, both globally and in Sweden. Since most of the risk factors for atherosclerosis are preventable, it is of great importance to highlight the benefits of a healthy lifestyle to young adults who are about to create their own habits.

A general concern about physical inactivity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and high body mass are supported by reports of an increased incidence and prevalence of obesity worldwide. In addition to this, the proportion of Swedish adults with low CRF almost doubled the last 20 years and the decline in CRF is more pronounced in the youngest age group.

The scientific work presented in this thesis was carried out to investigate the impact of different lifestyle related factors on vascular status, especially arterial stiffness, in young Swedish adults. In total 840 young adults in the age range 18-25 years were recruited to the cross-sectional Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis (LBA) study, to examine vascular status, biomarkers, and lifestyle related factors.

In the LBA study population of young adults in Sweden, 12% were classified as being at risk of future CVD. A high CVD risk was associated with low CRF and less physical activity. In the total study population 24% had unhealthy food habits, and 24% did not spend the recommended 30 minutes per day at moderate or vigorous intensities of physical activity. Low CRF, less physical activity, and overweight and obesity, were associated with stiffer arteries.

The results raises concerns about future CVD risk and highlights the health enhancing possibilities of high CRF and physical activity on vascular status in young Swedish adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2019. p. 98
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 201
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, pulse wave analysis, intima media thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, body composition, young adults
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75985 (URN)978-91-7529-306-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-15, Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C2, Södra Grev Rosengatan 32, Örebro, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-10-23Bibliographically approved

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Fernberg, UlrikaHurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

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