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Generational Bargain, Transfer of Disadvantages and Extreme Poverty: A Qualitative Enquiry from Bangladesh
Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6601-6222
Social and Policy Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
2020 (English)In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, no 32, p. 1173-1194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why do the poor stay poor? And, crucially, why are their children likely to be poor and end up poor later in life? This is a familiar question in the fields of development, social policy and economics alike. Bangladesh has seen notable successes in reducing poverty, and yet, addressing the transfer of deprivations and disadvantages within and between generations still poses a major challenge for policy-makers. To date, literature on inter-generational poverty remains dominated by large quantitative panel data. By contrast, this study draws on a unique qualitative dataset of 72 extreme poor households across Bangladesh, examining how inter- and intra-generational bargains generate extreme poverty. It is argued that, while poverty is transferred inter-generationally, it is not transferred equally. Rather, transferred disadvantages are shaped by persistent forms of deprivation, discrimination and a household-level political economy that is highly gendered. The inter-generational transfer of poverty should be seen as a dynamic and negotiated process that is crucially shaped by intra-generational bargains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. no 32, p. 1173-1194
Keywords [en]
Bangladesh, Disadvantages, Extreme poverty, Gender, Generational bargain
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-80636DOI: 10.1057/s41287-020-00261-4ISI: 000516790100001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85080091787OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-80636DiVA, id: diva2:1414567
Note

Funding Agencies:

European Union (EU) 754285

UK aid from the UK Government  GB-1-107402

Available from: 2020-03-13 Created: 2020-03-13 Last updated: 2022-11-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Living Longer, Living Harder: Ageing in Extreme Poverty in Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living Longer, Living Harder: Ageing in Extreme Poverty in Bangladesh
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this dissertation is to understand the lived experience of age-ing in extreme poverty in developing countries, in this case Bangladesh, a country that hosts a large number of extreme poor and ageing population. By focusing on the role of the family, the most neglected pillar of welfare, this dissertation sheds new light on the microprocesses of welfare politics. By doing so, it unravels the complexity and precariousness that characterises the lived experiences of the older persons, and the relational embeddedness of ageing in extreme poverty, which often makes bargaining, under conditions of scarce resources, an essential process.

This dissertation seeks to make contribution at the empirical, theoretical, and methodological levels. Empirically, it explores processes of generational transfer of disadvantages that create the conditions leading to the experience of extreme poor late life. Theoretically it helps us reconceptualise extreme poverty as ‘agency poverty’ associated with ageing. By adopting a life course approach, the dissertation advances our understanding of ageing and extreme poverty being inspired by postmodern and postcolonial in-sights, thus highlighting the importance of othering and agency erosion mechanisms. The dissertation also formulates the concept of ‘relational security’, arguing that the older persons’ search for wellbeing and security primarily revolves around their relations. The level of ‘relational security’ is therefore a crucial marker of wellbeing and security during the late life. Lastly, methodologically, and relying on an activist approach, the dissertation challenges some of the conventional ways of doing research. It emphasises the need both to duly recognise the power and agency of the vulnerable research participants and to facilitate a space to exercise their power and agency. It also advocates for researchers to be more mindful about their accountability to the research participants.

The dissertation discusses the policy implications of the findings and highlights that poverty policies and interventions should be concerned about ‘agency poverty’ and add provisions that contribute towards restoring older persons’ agency by, for example, empowering them politically. Policymakers also need to be aware that individuals’ different levels of relational embeddedness play a critical role in deter-mining the outcome of policy interventions tackling extreme poverty in old age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2022. p. 86
Series
Örebro Studies in Political Science, ISSN 1650-1632 ; 45
Keywords
Ageing, Agency, Extreme Poverty, Generational Bargain, Life History Interviews, Othering, Postcolonial, Qualitative, Social Policy, Welfare Regimes
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-102119 (URN)9789175294780 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-12-19, Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-11-08 Created: 2022-11-08 Last updated: 2022-12-15Bibliographically approved

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Akram, OwasimDenk, Thomas

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