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Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation Evoked by Convergence Load Under Conflicting Stimulus-to-Accommodation and Stimulus-to-Vergence Eye-Movements Measured by NIRS
Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
School of Optometry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigue and regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dIPFC) during convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range: 18-44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left and right eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods: (i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl): (ii) added convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only (Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasive measurements of hemodynamic activity over the dIPFC were quantified by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, the horizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparity set 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by the n-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colors of the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediately preceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (Delta HbO(2)), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Delta HHb) and total hemoglobin (Delta tHb).

Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity was systematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related level of change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another (p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation, and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased Delta HbCO(2) and Delta tHb only in condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min(-6) and min(-8): p < 0.05 for min(-10)).

Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbCO(2), HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dIPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotor control processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018. Vol. 12, article id 298
Keywords [en]
attention fatigue, accommodation, compensatory effort, convergence, disparity, near infrared spectoscopy (NIRS), time series analysis, visual ergonomics
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-81505DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00298ISI: 000440216100002PubMedID: 30104967Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85054772976OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-81505DiVA, id: diva2:1428128
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Note

This study was in part supported by grants from the Swedish Council for Working Life, Social Research Grant 2009-1761 and from the Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116.

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-06Bibliographically approved

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Elcadi, G.H.

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2122232425262724 of 218
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