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Particle Safety Assessment in Additive Manufacturing: From Exposure Risks to Advanced Toxicology Testing
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM); Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2403-7989
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7338-2079
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. (Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4319-7208
Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center in Linköping, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Toxicology, E-ISSN 2673-3080, Vol. 4, article id 836447Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) or industrial three-dimensional (3D) printing drives a new spectrum of design and production possibilities; pushing the boundaries both in the application by production of sophisticated products as well as the development of next-generation materials. AM technologies apply a diversity of feedstocks, including plastic, metallic, and ceramic particle powders with distinct size, shape, and surface chemistry. In addition, powders are often reused, which may change the particles' physicochemical properties and by that alter their toxic potential. The AM production technology commonly relies on a laser or electron beam to selectively melt or sinter particle powders. Large energy input on feedstock powders generates several byproducts, including varying amounts of virgin microparticles, nanoparticles, spatter, and volatile chemicals that are emitted in the working environment; throughout the production and processing phases. The micro and nanoscale size may enable particles to interact with and to cross biological barriers, which could, in turn, give rise to unexpected adverse outcomes, including inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of signaling pathways, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Another important aspect of AM-associated risks is emission/leakage of mono- and oligomers due to polymer breakdown and high temperature transformation of chemicals from polymeric particles, both during production, use, and in vivo, including in target cells. These chemicals are potential inducers of direct toxicity, genotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, understanding whether AM particle powders and their byproducts may exert adverse effects in humans is largely lacking and urges comprehensive safety assessment across the entire AM lifecycle-spanning from virgin and reused to airborne particles. Therefore, this review will detail: 1) brief overview of the AM feedstock powders, impact of reuse on particle physicochemical properties, main exposure pathways and protective measures in AM industry, 2) role of particle biological identity and key toxicological endpoints in the particle safety assessment, and 3) next-generation toxicology approaches in nanosafety for safety assessment in AM. Altogether, the proposed testing approach will enable a deeper understanding of existing and emerging particle and chemical safety challenges and provide a strategy for the development of cutting-edge methodologies for hazard identification and risk assessment in the AM industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022. Vol. 4, article id 836447
Keywords [en]
Adverse outcome, endocrine disruption, genotoxicity, industrial 3D printing, inflammation, mechanism of action, particle emissions
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-99004DOI: 10.3389/ftox.2022.836447ISI: 001002826000001PubMedID: 35548681Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85140953381OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-99004DiVA, id: diva2:1658332
Available from: 2022-05-16 Created: 2022-05-16 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Alijagic, AndiEngwall, MagnusSärndahl, EvaHedbrant, AlexanderAndersson, LenaKarlsson, PatrikScherbak, NikolaiLarsson, MariaPersson, Alexander

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