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Previous pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and the risk of cardiovascular disease: A nested case-control study in Sweden
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3707-6696
Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6328-5494
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
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2023 (English)In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 130, no 10, p. 1209-1216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are two common pregnancy complications that affect birth outcomes and are associated with a long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aims of this study were to investigate if the pre-eclampsia association with CVD is independent of GDM and modified by body mass index (BMI) or GDM. DESIGN: Case-control study.

SETTING: Sweden.

POPULATION: Cases were women with a first CVD event between 1991 and 2008 and a previous pregnancy who were matched with controls without CVD (1:5) by year of birth, age and region of birth. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of GDM, pre-eclampsia and maternal BMI with CVD adjusted for potential confounders and effect modifications with interaction tests.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CVD.

RESULTS: There were 2639 cases and 13 310 controls with complete data. Pre-eclampsia and GDM were independent risk factors for CVD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.59, 95% CI 2.12-3.17 and aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04-2.09, respectively). After stratifying by maternal BMI, the adjusted association of pre-eclampsia with CVD did not differ notably between BMI groups: normal weight (aOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.90-3.69), overweight (aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.52-4.68) and obesity (aOR 3.03, 95% CI 0.74-12.4). Similar findings were seen when stratifying on GDM/non-GDM.

CONCLUSIONS: Pre-eclampsia and GDM are independent risk factors for later CVD and having both during pregnancy is a major risk factor for later CVD. The association between pre-eclampsia and CVD is not modified by BMI. Effective CVD preventive programs for high-risk women are urgently needed in order to improve women's long-term health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023. Vol. 130, no 10, p. 1209-1216
Keywords [en]
Cardiovascular disease, gestational diabetes, hypertension, morbidity, mortality, overweight, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy, smoking
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-105221DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.17454ISI: 000959281800001PubMedID: 36974033Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85151416172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-105221DiVA, id: diva2:1747552
Funder
Region Örebro County, OLL 939071 OLL 961321Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved

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Hildén, KarinMontgomery, ScottBackman, Helena

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