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An Intelligent Monitoring Algorithm to Detect Dependencies between Test Cases in the Manual Integration Process
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Product Development Unit Radio, Production Test Development, Ericsson AB, Kumla, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3054-0051
Department of Mathematical Science, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0579-7181
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3122-693X
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), IEEE, 2023, p. 353-360Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Finding a balance between meeting test coverage and minimizing the testing resources is always a challenging task both in software (SW) and hardware (HW) testing. Therefore, employing machine learning (ML) techniques for test optimization purposes has received a great deal of attention. However, utilizing machine learning techniques frequently requires large volumes of valuable data to be trained. Although, the data gathering is hard and also expensive, manual data analysis takes most of the time in order to locate the source of failure once they have been produced in the so-called fault localization. Moreover, by applying ML techniques to historical production test data, relevant and irrelevant features can be found using strength association, such as correlation- and mutual information-based methods. In this paper, we use production data records of 100 units of a 5G radio product containing more than 7000 test results. The obtained results show that insightful information can be found after clustering the test results by their strength association, most linear and monotonic, which would otherwise be challenging to identify by traditional manual data analysis methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023. p. 353-360
Series
IEEE International Conference on Software Testing Verification and Validation Workshop, ICSTW, ISSN 2159-4848
Keywords [en]
Terms Test Optimization, Machine Learning, Fault Localization, Dependence Analysis, Mutual Information
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-107727DOI: 10.1109/ICSTW58534.2023.00066ISI: 001009223100052Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85163076493ISBN: 9798350333350 (electronic)ISBN: 9798350333367 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-107727DiVA, id: diva2:1791976
Conference
16th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW 2023), Dublin, Ireland, April 16-20, 2023
Funder
Knowledge FoundationVinnovaAvailable from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. AI-Based Methods For Improved Testing of Radio Base Stations: A Case Study Towards Intelligent Manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AI-Based Methods For Improved Testing of Radio Base Stations: A Case Study Towards Intelligent Manufacturing
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Testing of complex systems may often require the use of tailored-made solutions, expensive testing equipment, large computing capacity, and manual implementation work due to domain uniqueness. The aforementioned test resources are expensive and time-consuming, which makes them good candidates to optimize. A radio base station (RBS) is a complex system. Upon the arrival of new RBS generations, new testing challenges have been introduced that traditional methods cannot cope with. In order to optimize the test process of RBSs, product quality and production efficiency can be studied.

Despite that AI techniques are valuable tools for monitoring behavioral changes in various applications, there have not been sufficient research efforts spent on the use of intelligent manufacturing in already existing factories and production lines. The concept of intelligent manufacturing involves the whole system development life-cycle, such as design, production, and maintenance. Available literature about optimization and integration of industrial applications using AI techniques has not resulted in common solutions due to the complexity of the real-world applications, which have their own unique characteristics, e.g., multivariate, non-linear, non-stationary, multi-modal, class imbalance; making it challenging to find generalizable solutions. This licentiate thesis aims to bridge the gap between theoretical approaches and the implementation of real industrial applications. 

In this licentiate thesis, two questions are explored, namely how well AI techniques can perform and optimize fault detection and fault prediction on the production of RBSs, as well as how to modify learning algorithms in order to perform transfer learning between different products. These questions are addressed by using different AI techniques for test optimization purposes and are examined in three empirical studies focused on parallel test execution, fault detection and prediction, and automated fault localization. For the parallel test execution study, two different approaches were used to find and cluster semantically similar test cases and propose their execution in parallel. For this purpose, Levenshstein distance and two NLP techniques are compared. The results show that cluster-based test scenarios can be automatically generated from requirement specifications and the execution of semantically similar tests can reduce the number of tests by 95\% in the study case if executed in parallel. 

Study number two investigates the possibility of predicting testing performance outcomes by analyzing anomalies in the test process and classifying them by their compliance with dynamic test limits instead of fixed limits. The performance measures can be modeled using historical data through regression techniques and the classification of the anomalies is learned using support vector machines and convolutional neural networks. The results show good agreement between the actual and predicted learned model, where the root-mean-square error reaches 0.00073. Furthermore, this approach can automatically label the incoming tests according to the dynamic limits, making it possible to predict errors in an early stage of the process. This study contributes to product quality by monitoring the test measurements beyond fixed limits and contributes to making a more efficient testing process by detecting faults before they are measured. Moreover, study two considers the possibility of using transfer learning due to an insufficient number of anomalies in a single product. 

The last study focuses on root cause analysis by analyzing test dependencies between test measurements using two known correlation-based methods and mutual information to find strength associations between measurements. The contributions of this study are twofold. First, test dependencies between measurements can be found using Pearson and Spearman correlation and MI; and their dependencies can be linear or higher order. Second, by clustering the associated tests, redundant tests are found, which could be used to update the test execution sequence and choose to execute only the relevant tests, hence, making a more efficient production process by saving test time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2023. p. 34
Series
Örebro Studies in Technology, ISSN 1650-8580 ; 102
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108714 (URN)
Presentation
2023-10-02, Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, Hörsal P1, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190128Vinnova, D-RODS (2023-00244)
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-03 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved

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Landin, CristinaLängkvist, MartinLoutfi, Amy

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