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Immunotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disrupting impacts of polyamide microplastic particles and chemicals
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2403-7989
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM); Centre for Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems (AASS); Mobile Robotics and Olfaction Lab (MRO))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2744-0132
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Center (MTM))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1404-3186
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5752-4196
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2024 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to their exceptional properties and cost effectiveness, polyamides or nylons have emerged as widely used materials, revolutionizing diverse industries, including industrial 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM). Powder-based AM technologies employ tonnes of polyamide microplastics to produce complex components every year. However, the lack of comprehensive toxicity assessment of particulate polyamides and polyamide-associated chemicals, especially in the light of the global microplastics crisis, calls for urgent action. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of polyamide-12 microplastics used in AM, and assessed a number of toxicity endpoints focusing on inflammation, immunometabolism, genotoxicity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation, endocrine disruption, and cell morphology. Specifically, microplastics examination by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that work flow reuse of material created a fraction of smaller particles with an average size of 1-5 µm, a size range readily available for uptake by human cells. Moreover, chemical analysis by means of gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry detected several polyamide-associated chemicals including starting material, plasticizer, thermal stabilizer/antioxidant, and migrating slip additive. Even if polyamide particles and chemicals did not induce an acute inflammatory response, repeated and prolonged exposure of human primary macrophages disclosed a steady increase in the levels of proinflammatory chemokine Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8). Moreover, targeted metabolomics disclosed that polyamide particles modulated the kynurenine pathway and some of its key metabolites. The p53-responsive luciferase reporter gene assay showed that particles per se were able to activate p53, being indicative of a genotoxic stress. Polyamide-associated chemicals triggered moderate activation of AhR and elicited anti-androgenic activity. Finally, a high-throughput and non-targeted morphological profiling by Cell Painting assay outlined major sites of bioactivity of polyamide-associated chemicals and indicated putative mechanisms of toxicity in the cells. These findings reveal that the increasing use of polyamide microplastics may pose a potential health risk for the exposed individuals, and it merits more attention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024. Vol. 183, article id 108412
Keywords [en]
Additive manufacturing, GC-HRMS, High-throughput morphological profiling, Metabolomics, Nylon, Plastic additives
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-110605DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2023.108412ISI: 001153657900001PubMedID: 38183898Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85183378556OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-110605DiVA, id: diva2:1825634
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20160019; 20190107; 20220122; 20200017Swedish Research Council, 2022-06725; 2018-05973Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Alijagic, AndiKotlyar, OleksandrLarsson, MariaSalihovic, SamiraHedbrant, AlexanderEriksson, UlrikaKarlsson, PatrikPersson, AlexanderScherbak, NikolaiEngwall, MagnusSärndahl, Eva

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Alijagic, AndiKotlyar, OleksandrLarsson, MariaSalihovic, SamiraHedbrant, AlexanderEriksson, UlrikaKarlsson, PatrikPersson, AlexanderScherbak, NikolaiEngwall, MagnusSärndahl, Eva
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