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Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Depression: A Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 80, no 12, 916-922 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. However, it is unclear whether ADHD medication increases or decreases the risk for depression.

Methods: We studied all individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD born between 1960 and 1998 in Sweden (N = 38,752). We obtained data for prescription of ADHD medication, diagnosis of depression and other psychiatric disorders, and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. The association between ADHD medication and depression was estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, ADHD medication was associated with a reduced long-term risk (i.e., 3 years later) for depression (hazard ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.67). The risk was lower for longer duration of ADHD medication. Also, ADHD medication was associated with reduced rates of concurrent depression; within-individual analysis suggested that occurrence of depression was 20% less common during periods when patients received ADHD medication compared with periods when they did not (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92).

Conclusions Our study suggests that ADHD medication does not increase the risk of later depression; rather, medication was associated with a reduced risk for subsequent and concurrent depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 80, no 12, 916-922 p.
Keyword [en]
ADHD medication, Cohort study, Depression, Long-term effect, Short-term effect, Stimulants
National Category
Psychiatry Neurology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54106DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.02.018ISI: 000392754000007PubMedID: 27086545ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84963520617OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-54106DiVA: diva2:1058328
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-2280Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-2780
Note

Funding Agencies:

Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social And Medical Sciences 340-2013-5867

National Institute of Mental Health 1R01MH102221

Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute TL1 TR001107

Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2017-03-10Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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