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The association between childhood relocations and subsequent risk of suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement
Indiana University, Bloomington, United States .
Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
University of Chicago, Chicago, United States .
University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom .
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2016 (English)In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 969-979Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Given the frequency with which families change residences, the effects of childhood relocations have gained increasing research attention. Many researchers have demonstrated that childhood relocations are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. However, drawing strong causal claims remains problematic due to uncontrolled confounding factors.

Method: We utilized longitudinal, population-based Swedish registers to generate a nationally representative sample of offspring born 1983-1997 (n = 1 510 463). Using Cox regression and logistic regression, we examined the risk for numerous adverse outcomes after childhood relocation while controlling for measured covariates. To account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounds, we also compared differentially exposed cousins and siblings.

Results: In the cohort baseline model, each annual relocation was associated with risk for the adverse outcomes, including suicide attempt [hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.20]. However, when accounting for offspring and parental covariates (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.09), as well as genetic and environmental confounds shared by cousins (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09) and siblings (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04), the risk for suicide attempt attenuated. We found a commensurate pattern of results for severe mental illness, substance abuse, criminal convictions, and low academic achievement.

Conclusions: Previous research may have overemphasized the independent association between relocations and later adverse outcomes. The results suggest that the association between childhood relocations and suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement is partially explained by genetic and environmental confounds correlated with relocations. This study demonstrates the importance of using family-based, quasi-experimental designs to test plausible alternate hypotheses when examining causality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Vol. 46, no 5, p. 969-979
Keywords [en]
Behavior genetics, bipolar disorder, psychopathology, relocations, sibling comparisons, suicide, schizophrenia
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54489DOI: 10.1017/S0033291715002469ISI: 000371620700007PubMedID: 26620451Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84978776466OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-54489DiVA, id: diva2:1064252
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Institute of Child Health and Development 

Indiana Clinical Translational Institute Project Development Teams 

Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research 

Swedish Research Council through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social and Medical Sciences 

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, Henrik

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