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Sex differences and developmental stability in genetic and environmental influences on psychoactive substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6851-3297
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2011 (English)In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 41, no 9, 1907-1916 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of substance use. However, little is known about the stability of these factors across development. We aimed to answer three crucial questions about this etiology that have never been addressed in a single study: (1) Is there a general vulnerability to substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood? (2) If so, do the genetic and environmental influences on this vulnerability change across development? (3) Do these developmental processes differ in males and females?

Method: Subjects included 1480 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development who have been followed since 1994. Prospective, self-reported regular smoking, alcohol intoxication and illicit drug use were assessed at ages 13-14, 16-17 and 19-20 years. Structural modeling was performed with the program Mx.

Results: An underlying common factor accounted for the association between smoking, alcohol and illicit drug consumption for the three age groups. Common genetic and shared environmental effects showed substantial continuity. In general, as participants aged, the influence of the shared environment decreased, and genetic effects became more substance specific in their effect.

Conclusions: The current report answers three important questions in the etiology of substance use. The genetic and environmental risk for substance consumption is partly mediated through a common factor and is partly substance specific. Developmentally, evidence was strongest for stability of common genetic effects, with less evidence for genetic innovation. These processes seem to be the same in males and females.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Vol. 41, no 9, 1907-1916 p.
Keyword [en]
Adolescence, development, substance use, twin study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54522DOI: 10.1017/S003329171000259XISI: 000294257900012PubMedID: 21251345Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80054847782OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-54522DiVA: diva2:1064311
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Funding Agencies:

Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research

Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation 

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-01-31Bibliographically approved

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