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Preterm birth and mortality and morbidity: a population-based quasi-experimental study
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6851-3297
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2013 (English)In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 70, no 11, 1231-1240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Importance: Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. However, previous studies have been unable to rigorously examine whether confounding factors cause these associations rather than the harmful effects of being born preterm.

Objective: To estimate the extent to which the associations between early gestational age and offspring mortality and morbidity are the result of confounding factors by using a quasi-experimental design, the sibling-comparison approach, and by controlling for statistical covariates that varied within families.

Design, setting and participants: A population-based cohort study, combining Swedish registries to identify all individuals born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008 (3,300,708 offspring of 1,736,735 mothers) and link them with multiple outcomes.

Main outcomes and measures: Offspring mortality (during infancy and throughout young adulthood) and psychiatric (psychotic or bipolar disorder, autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suicide attempts, substance use, and criminality), academic (failing grades and educational attainment), and social (partnering, parenthood, low income, and social welfare benefits) outcomes through 2009.

Results: In the population, there was a dose-response relationship between early gestation and the outcome measures. For example, extreme preterm birth (23-27 weeks of gestation) was associated with infant mortality (odds ratio, 288.1; 95% CI, 271.7-305.5), autism (hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% CI, 2.6-4.0), low educational attainment (HR, 1.7; 1.5-2.0), and social welfare benefits (HR, 1.3; 1.2-1.5) compared with offspring born at term. The associations between early gestation and mortality and psychiatric morbidity generally were robust when comparing differentially exposed siblings and controlling for statistical covariates, whereas the associations with academic and some social problems were greatly or completely attenuated in the fixed-effects models.

Conclusions and relevance: The mechanisms responsible for the associations between preterm birth and mortality and morbidity are outcome-specific. Associations between preterm birth and mortality and psychiatric morbidity are largely independent of shared familial confounds and measured covariates, consistent with a causal inference. However, some associations, particularly predicting suicide attempt, educational attainment, and social welfare benefits, are the result of confounding factors. The findings emphasize the importance of both reducing preterm birth and providing wraparound services to all siblings in families with an offspring born preterm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chicago, USA: American Medical Association , 2013. Vol. 70, no 11, 1231-1240 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54578DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2107ISI: 000328948700016PubMedID: 24068297Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84888424668OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-54578DiVA: diva2:1064408
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 

National Institute of Mental Health 

Swedish Prison and Probation Services 

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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