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Systematic review of environmental risk factors for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A proposed roadmap from association to causation
Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6851-3297
Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
2016 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 65, p. 36-62Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To synthesize the current knowledge on possible environmental risk factors for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

Method: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. The Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched up until October 6, 2015, employing relevant keywords and MeSH terms.

Results: 128 studies met inclusion criteria. Potential environmental risk factors for OCD have been identified in the broad areas of perinatal complications, reproductive cycle, and stressful life events. There is limited evidence regarding other potential risk factors, such as parental age, season of birth, socioeconomic status, parental rearing practices, infections, traumatic brain injury, substance use or vitamin deficiency. In general, studies were of limited methodological quality.

Conclusions: At present, no environmental risk factors have convincingly been associated with OCD. We propose a roadmap for future studies, consisting of longitudinal, population-based research, employing quasi-experimental family and twin designs to identify risk factors that are not only associated with the disorder but also contribute to its causation either directly or moderating the effect of genes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 65, p. 36-62
Keywords [en]
Obsessive-Compulsive disorder, genes, environment, risk factors, perinatal complications, reproductive cycle events, stressful life events, infection, PANDAS, socioeconomic status, substance abuse, traumatic brain injury, vitamin deficiency, famine, immigration, adoption, urbanization
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54637DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.011ISI: 000376787400003PubMedID: 27013116Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84961909193OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-54637DiVA, id: diva2:1064486
Note

Funding Agency:

Karolinska Institutet 

Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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