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The gluten-free diet and its current application in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis
Univ Salerno, Dept Med & Surg, Gastroenterol, I-84081 Baronissi, SA, Italy..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7426-1145
Kings Coll London, Div Diabet & Nutr Sci, Dept Gastroenterol, London WC2R 2LS, England.;St Thomas Hosp, Rayne Inst, London SE1 7EH, England..
Sheffield Teaching Hosp NHS Trust, Acad Dept Neurosci, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.;Royal Hallamshire Hosp, Sheffield S10 2JF, S Yorkshire, England..
Univ Tampere, Sch Med, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland.;Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Tampere, Finland.;Seinajoki Cent Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Seinajoki, Finland..
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2015 (English)In: United European Gastroenterology journal, ISSN 2050-6406, E-ISSN 2050-6414, Vol. 3, no 2, 121-135 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available therapy for coeliac disease (CD). Objectives: We aim to review the literature on the GFD, the gluten content in naturally gluten-free (GF) and commercially available GF food, standards and legislation concerning the gluten content of foods, and the vitamins and mineral content of a GFD. Methods: We carried out a PubMed search for the following terms: Gluten, GFD and food, education, vitamins, minerals, calcium, Codex wheat starch and oats. Relevant papers were reviewed and for each topic a consensus among the authors was obtained. Conclusion: Patients with CD should avoid gluten and maintain a balanced diet to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients, vitamins, fibre and calcium. A GFD improves symptoms in most patients with CD. The practicalities of this however, are difficult, as (i) many processed foods are contaminated with gluten, (ii) staple GF foods are not widely available, and (iii) the GF substitutes are often expensive. Furthermore, (iv) the restrictions of the diet may adversely affect social interactions and quality of life. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch in the diet remains controversial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015. Vol. 3, no 2, 121-135 p.
Keyword [en]
Coeliac disease, gluten free, gluten-free diet, dermatitis herpetiformis, parts per million
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56338DOI: 10.1177/2050640614559263ISI: 000352166700003PubMedID: 25922672OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-56338DiVA: diva2:1081692
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved

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Ciacci, CarolinaLudvigsson, Jonas F.
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