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Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Applications in Environmental Chemistry
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although gas and liquid chromatography have emerged as dominant separation techniques in environmental analytical chemistry, these methods do not allow for the concurrent analysis of chemically diverse groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are also a small number of compounds which are not easily amenable to either of these traditional separation techniques. The main objective of this thesis was to address these issues by demonstrating the applicability of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) in various aspects of environmental chemistry.

First, pSFC/MS analytical methods were developed for legacy POPs (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) as well as the emerging environmental contaminant Dechlorane Plus (DP), and issues relating to the ionization of target analytes when pSFC was coupled to MS were explored. Novel APPI and APCI reagents (fluorobenzene and triethylamine) were optimized and real samples (water and soil) were analyzed to demonstrate environmental applicability.

The possibility of chiral and preparative scale pSFC separations was then demonstrated through the isolation and characterization of thermally labile hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) stereoisomers. The analytical pSFC separation of the α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD enantiomers as well as the δ and ε meso forms was shown to be superior to results obtained using a published LC method.

Finally, technical mixtures of phosphorus flame retardants (RBDPP, BPA-BDPP, and DOPO; a group of related compounds which are challenging to analyze concurrently) were examined using multiple analytical techniques and pSFC was found to be the only method which facilitated the accurate determination of the components of all 3 mixtures. This thesis confirms the potential of pSFC/MS as a fast, green, and cost effective means of separating and analyzing environmental contaminants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2017. , 87 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 19
Keyword [en]
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Ionization, POPs, APPI, APCI, chiral, achiral, packed column
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56826ISBN: 978-91-7529-184-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-56826DiVA: diva2:1084666
Public defence
2017-05-12, Örebro universitet, Billbergska huset, Hörsal B, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Comparative assessment of the chromatographic separation of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using supercritical fluid chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative assessment of the chromatographic separation of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using supercritical fluid chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography
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2015 (English)In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 7, no 21, 9245-9253 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of legacy environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) is well established and universally accepted. The use of an alternative separation technique, such as packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC), may be of interest as a fast, green, and cost effective method of analyzing environmental samples. The technique is amenable to a broad range of chemical compounds and could facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple compound classes as well as the inclusion of thermally labile compounds in a single targeted analysis. The recent re-emergence of this technology due to the introduction of more robust and efficient instrumentation may result in an increased acceptance of pSFC analytical techniques in this area. Herein, the first reported analytical separation of PCDDs and PCDFs by pSFC is described and its separation capabilities are compared with established HRGC protocols. Elution profiles of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were examined and the separation of PCDD/PCDF homologue groups was found to be comparable to those accomplished using HRGC. Similarly, the resolution of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) congeners, as required by current regulatory methods utilizing HRGC, was demonstrated and the separation of possible co-eluting PCDD/PCDF congeners was examined and compared to that achieved using popular HRGC capillary columns. The possibility of concurrent analysis of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with PCDDs and PCDFs using the developed pSFC method was also investigated. The effective separation of these environmental contaminants obtained using pSFC and subsequent detection utilizing atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry at environmentally relevant levels demonstrates the promise associated with this technique for the analysis of environmental extracts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences Food Science
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46699 (URN)10.1039/c5ay01644d (DOI)000363732900034 ()2-s2.0-84945421701 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
2. Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental Contaminants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental Contaminants
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57150 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
3. Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mechanisms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mechanisms
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57152 (URN)
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
4. Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
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2016 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 21, no 11, 1509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+) and (-) enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC) methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD), was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
hexabromocyclododecane, enantiomeric separation, supercritical fluid chromatography
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53487 (URN)10.3390/molecules21111509 (DOI)000389918200091 ()27834934 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84997428723 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
5. Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques
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2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, no June 2017, 333-341 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of phosphorus based flame retardants as replacements for commonly used halogenated flame retardants has been gaining interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have a less significant impact on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, little is known about the chemical compositions of many of the technical products (which often are mixtures) and a single separation technique for concurrent analysis of these types of compounds has not been identified. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the constituents of three halogen free organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDBPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The major components of commercial samples of RDBPP and BPA-BDPP were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR. A commercial sample of DOPO was found to be essentially pure, but its analysis is complicated by the fact that it can exist in ring-open and ring-closed forms. With the structures of the components confirmed by NMR, multiple analytical separation techniques (gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC)) were investigated for the analysis of these three technical products. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography allows the separation of the components of all three OPFRs, including the two forms of DOPO, in a single run.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs); pSFC/MS method; NMR; RDBPP; BPA-BDPP; DOPO
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57461 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.129 (DOI)000399849300038 ()28282639 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015851681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved

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