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Stable carbon isotope labelled carbon dioxide as tracer gas for air change rate measurement in a ventilated single zone
Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4384-5014
Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
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2017 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 115, 173-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has often been used as tracer gas for measurement of the air change rate A (h(-1)) in buildings. In such measurements, a correction is required for the presence of indoor CO2, which commonly consists of atmospheric CO2 mixed with human respired CO2. Here, C-13 isotope-labelled CO2 was employed as tracer gas, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was used for simultaneous measurement of the two isotope analogues (CO2)-C-12 and (CO2)-C-13. This enabled the simultaneOtts measurement of the (CO2)-C-13 tracer gas, with correction for background (CO2)-C-13, and the concentration of indoor CO2, allowing for presence of occupants. The background correction procedute assumes that the isotope delta of the background indoor CO2 equals delta(B)= -19%(0), based on the prior information that the carbon isotope ratio R-B = C-13/C-12 of all carbon in the bio-geosphere of earth is in the interval 0.010900 < R-B < 0.011237. Evidence supported that lambda could be accurately measured, using the new (CO2)-C-13 tracer method, even when the background (CO2)-C-13 concentration varied during the measurement time interval, or when the actual delta(B) value differed from the assumed value. The measurement uncertainty for lambda was estimatdd at 3%. Uncertainty in A due to uncertainty in R-B, u(RB)(lambda), was estimated to increase with a decreasing amount of (CO2)-C-13 tracer. This indicated that at least 4 ppm tracer must be used, in order to obtain u(RB)(lambda)/lambda < 2%. The temporal resolution of the lambda measurement was 1.25/lambda h.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2017. Vol. 115, 173-181 p.
Keyword [en]
Air change rate, Ventilation efficiency, Tracer technique, Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, C-13-CO2, Isotope labelled carbon dioxide
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57508DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.01.021ISI: 000397363000015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85010877288OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-57508DiVA: diva2:1092526
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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