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Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) Seem Resistant to Atherosclerosis Despite Highly Elevated Plasma Lipids during Hibernation and Active State
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
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2012 (English)In: Clinical and Translational Science, ISSN 1752-8054, E-ISSN 1752-8062, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hibernation is an extreme physiological challenge for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in which metabolism is based mainly on lipids. The study objective was to compare plasma lipids in hibernating and active free-ranging brown bears and relate them to arterial histopathology. Blood was drawn from seven immobilized free-ranging brown bears (three females, 23 years old) during hibernation in February and from the same bears while active in June and analyzed by enzymatic and automated hematology methods within 48 hours of sampling. Left anterior descending coronary arteries and aortic arches from 12 bears (six females, 1.512 years old) killed in hunting were examined by histopathology. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from hibernation to the active period (11.08 +/- 1.04 mmol/L vs. 7.89 +/- 1.96 mmol/L, P= 0.0028) as did triglyceride (3.16 +/- 0.62 mmol/L vs. 1.44 +/- 0.27 mmol/L, P= 0.00012) and LDL cholesterol (4.30 +/- 0.71 mmol/L vs. 2.02 +/- 1.03 mmol/L, P= 0.0075), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. No atherosclerosis, fatty streaks, foam cell infiltration, or inflammation were seen in any arterial samples. Brown bears tolerate elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, physical inactivity, and circulatory slow flow during hibernation without signs of -atherosclerosis. This species might serve as a reverse translational model for atherosclerosis resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Vol. 5, no 3, p. 269-272
Keywords [en]
apolipoproteins, cholesterol, hibernation physiology, triglycerides
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58327DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00370.xISI: 000305077100014PubMedID: 22686205Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84862224614OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-58327DiVA, id: diva2:1116038
Note

Funding Agencies:

NordForsk (an organization under the Nordic Council of Ministers)  44042

Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Immobilization as a risk factor for arterial and venous thrombosis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immobilization as a risk factor for arterial and venous thrombosis
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: Immobilization and a sedentary lifestyle are correlated with an elevated risk of both arterial and venous thrombosis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether markers associated with cardiovascular disease risk are altered during long term immobilization in a human model and in the brown bear, which survives annual cycles of long-term immobilization.

Methods: In study populations assigned to 20-60 days of strict head-down-tilt bed rest 24h a day, we analysed blood levels of the emerging cardiovascular disease marker cystatin C, soluble markers of in vivo platelet activation P-selectin and PDGF-BB, and platelet aggregation. Blood samples were taken from free-ranging brown bears in summer and again during hibernation for analysis of lipid profile and platelet aggregation. Histological examination was performed on the left anterior descending coronary artery and aortic arches of bears harvested during the hunting season.

Results: During prolonged bed rest in humans, levels of cystatin C and platelet aggregation remained unchanged, but we observed a significant decrease in platelet activation markers. Brown bear plasma lipids were elevated during hibernation compared with the active state and cholesterol levels were generally considerably higher than normal human values. The arterial specimens showed no signs of atherosclerosis. Platelet aggregation was halved during hibernation compared to the active state.

Conclusions: Long-term immobilization has effects on several cardiovascular risk factors in both humans and bears. Increased knowledge and understanding of the protective mechanisms that allows the brown bear to survive repeated periods of immobilization could contribute to new strategies for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 69
Series
Örebro Studies in Medicine, ISSN 1652-4063 ; 179
Keywords
Venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, atherosclerosis, cystatin C, cholesterol, platelet activation, platelet aggregation, immobilization
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65003 (URN)978-91-7529-243-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-07, Örebro universitet, Campus USÖ, hörsal C3, Södra Grev Rosengatan 32, Örebro, 09:15 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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Arinell, KarinFröbert, Ole

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