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Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation
Hedmark Univ Coll, Dept Forestry & Wildlife Management, Elverum, Norway.;Norwegian Sch Vet Sci, Sect Arctic Vet Med, Tromso, Norway..
Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway..
Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Vet Med & Anim Sci, Sect Anesthesiol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Calgary, Fac Vet Med, Dept Vet Clin & Diagnost Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
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2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, e40520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two-to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean +/- standard deviation) 3.2 +/- 3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9 +/- 0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2 +/- 7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730 +/- 589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE , 2012. Vol. 7, no 7, e40520
National Category
Zoology Other Veterinary Science
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URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58666DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040520ISI: 000306466100039PubMedID: 22815757OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-58666DiVA: diva2:1121559
Available from: 2017-07-11 Created: 2017-07-11 Last updated: 2017-07-11

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