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REE-Enriched Mn-Oxide Precipitates in Water-Bearing Fractures in the Ytterby Mine, Sweden
Dept of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2104-4593
Dept of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7845-6495
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2016 (English)In: Mining Meets Water – Conflicts and Solutions: IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11–15, 2016 / [ed] Drebenstedt, C. & Paul, M., Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, 346-352 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Ytterby mine, Sweden, is known for the discovery of eight elements, including yttrium and five of the rare earth elements (REE). The mine was in operation from 1750 to 1933 and was after closure used as a storage depot for fuel from the 1950s to 1995. A tunnel was opened in the 1950s through the bedrock into the mine to allow access to the storage depot. Recent water monitoring campaigns (20122015) in the mine revealed a black substance (denoted YBS) in some fractures opening into the tunnel. Analysis of the YBS (elemental analysis, phase analysis by XRD, SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, IR-and EPR-spectroscopy, preferential leaching at pH 4) showed that the main mineral component of the YBS is the manganese oxide birnessite. Also minor quantities of other less well defined manganese oxides were found, as well as silicates (quartz grains, possibly feldspar grains) and calcite. Birnessite has typically the composition Mx(Mn3+, Mn(2)(4+))O(4)xAq, with M= Na, Ca and x= 0.5. The birnessite component in YBS had a Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio of 1.04/0.96 with M = 0.42 Ca + 0.03 (REE+Y), 0.03 Mg and 0.03 other metals. All of these metals were firmly associated with the structure, since no release was observed at pH 4, except for significant fractions of the total Na, Mg, Ca-contents. Thus, REE+Y correspond to 1% of the total YBS mass and up to 3% of the metal content in the birnessite phase. This corresponds to an REE enrichment factor of the order 106 (YBS-birnessite/ fracture water). Birnessite with a substantial fraction of REE in the lattice has not previously been reported. The formation of birnessite is a microbial process. Identification of the microorganisms present in the Ytterby system is in progress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016. 346-352 p.
Keyword [en]
Mine water geochemistry, manganese oxide precipitation, birnessite, rare earth elements
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-58800ISI: 000402663400056ISBN: 978-3-86012-533-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-58800DiVA: diva2:1128516
Conference
Annual Meeting of the International-Mine-Water-Association (IMWA 2016), Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016
Note

Funding Agencies:

Stockholm University (Sweden)  

Örebro University (Sweden)  

Friedrich Schiller University (Germany)  

Available from: 2017-07-26 Created: 2017-07-26 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved

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REE-Enriched Mn-Oxide Precipitates in Water-Bearing Fractures in the Ytterby Mine, Sweden

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Allard, BertSjöberg, ViktorKarlsson, Stefan

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