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Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9831-0896
2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society , 2017. Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196
Keywords [en]
aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016PubMedID: 28473614Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85045202499OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-60897DiVA, id: diva2:1142509
Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Skeletal Muscle Mass & Function in Older Women: Health-Enhancing Influences of Combined Resistance Exercise & Diet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skeletal Muscle Mass & Function in Older Women: Health-Enhancing Influences of Combined Resistance Exercise & Diet
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength which may lead to impaired ability to perform activities of daily living in older adults. Although the exact cause of the gradual decline in muscle mass is unknown, identifying efficient strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is important in order to promote healthy ageing. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the effects of resistance training alone or combined with a healthy diet on skeletal muscle mass and function of healthy recreationally active older women and to determine mechanisms by which elevated systemic inflammation may contribute to the age-related decline of muscle mass in older adults. The combination of resistance training and a healthy diet induced gains in leg lean mass as well as greater gains in dynamic explosive force than resistance training alone in healthy recreationally active older women. The observed gains in leg lean mass were accompanied by increases in the size of type IIA muscle fibres together with down-regulation in gene expression of a pro-inflammatory factor (IL-1β) and upregulation in gene expression of a regulator of cellular growth (mTOR) in skeletal muscle of older women. Additionally, reduced muscle protein synthesis and size of muscle cells may mediate the detrimental effects of elevated circulating markers of inflammation on muscle mass in older adults. In conclusion, the present thesis depicts mechanistic links between elevated systemic marker of inflammation and muscle mass and provides new information on the effects of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass and strength in a group of healthy recreationally active older women. This knowledge is instrumental for development of strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2017. p. 79
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535 ; 26
Keywords
Healthy ageing, Chronic inflammation, C-reactive protein, Omega-3 fatty acids, Resistance training, Physical function
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61234 (URN)978-91-7529-218-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-12, Örebro universitet, Hörsal G, Gymnastikhuset, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved

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Edholm, PeterStrandberg, EmelieKadi, Fawzi

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