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Making Meals in Restaurants: Daily Practices and Professional Ideals
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5384-1178
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thanks to the gastronomic development in recent decades in Sweden, the restaurant industry is growing significantly and has opportunities to attract new and wider groups of labour. However, despite media images of successful chefs and culinary creativity, there is a common perception of tiring working conditions and low wages that prevent restaurants from attracting staff.

The overall aim of this thesis is to elucidate how professionalism is done and reproduced inside the restaurant industry by means of practice theory and the Five Aspects Meal Model. By an empirically grounded understanding of daily practices in small restaurants the thesis will show and explain how professionalism including leadership, is formed and understood among restaurant practitioners. Additionally by conceptualizing professionalism in restaurant work the thesis will provide a solid basis for the discussion of how knowledge transfer in the restaurant industry can develop. The scientific methods used in two studies were qualitative: interviews with owners/managers/head chefs of small restaurants in a tourist resort and in four major cities in Sweden, and indepth workplace observations including talks with the owners/managers/head chefs and their staff.

The results show how daily work in restaurants contain conflicting practices, such as timeconsuming workload and slow knowledge growth together with lack of control and planning that collide with expectations of creativity and development. Leadership in restaurant kitchens is dependent on knowledge of materiality and ability to show and guide staff as well as having overview and foresight in the daily work. The results also suggests that professionalism in the industry entails practices of mastering the materiality, observant management and, time use including loyal perseverance. The thesis contributes to an indepth discussion of professionalism in restaurants and the industry’s ability to develop time-use, leadership, and new ways of learning, in order to attract and retain staff.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2017. , p. 96
Series
Örebro Studies in Culinary Arts and Meal Science, ISSN 1652-2974 ; 12
Keyword [en]
craftmanship, FAMM, leadership, hospitality, practice theory, work place training
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61422ISBN: 978-91-7529-217-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-61422DiVA, id: diva2:1148688
Public defence
2017-12-15, Örebro universitet, Campus Grythyttan, Gastronomiska teatern,, Sörälgsvägen 2, Grythyttan, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Restaurant practices: time, planning, knowledge and dreams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Restaurant practices: time, planning, knowledge and dreams
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 297-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper contributes to research on restaurant work, which plays an important role in culinary arts research. The aim of this study was to make visible and elucidate the daily work practices in eight small restaurants in a seasonal tourist destination on the Southeast coast of Sweden. The central methods used were observations and participant observations and interviews, along with an e-mail questionnaire and examination of published information concerning all the restaurants. By means of practice theory, three central elements were used to identify and understand the configuration of the activities involved in daily work in small seasonal restaurants. These three elements, knowledge/competence, technologies/materiality and creation of meaning, formed four practices. The practices identified in this study were managing time and seasons; planning, strategising and controlling; knowing and having skills; and dreams and lifestyle. The conclusion of the study indicates that small restaurant practices may be conflicting, as they involve an extremely time-consuming workload, vague planning and lingering knowledge growth in contrast to the ideas of creativity and development that are a part of the restaurant owners’ dreams and lifestyle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keyword
Small restaurants, practice theory, lifestyle, seasonality, culinary arts
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sociology
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50954 (URN)10.1080/15022250.2016.1176951 (DOI)000404855300005 ()2-s2.0-84974827629 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish Tourism & Hospitality Industry 

Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
2. Making Meals in Small Seasonal Restaurants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Meals in Small Seasonal Restaurants
2018 (English)In: Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, ISSN 1542-8052, E-ISSN 1542-8044, Vol. 16, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since restaurateurs can benefit by analyzing the production of meals, particularly with the dominant framework for meal experiences, the five aspects meal model (FAMM), this study examined FAMM’s relevance as an analytical tool for understanding meal production via field observations and interviews in eight small restaurants in a rural destination in Sweden. Results showed that FAMM’s aspect of the management control system and the factor of time are critical to the entire meal production process in restaurants. This article closes with a discussion of FAMM’s usefulness as a qualitative checklist for restaurateurs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keyword
Insider perspective, management control system, the five aspects meal model, time use, tourist destinations
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53312 (URN)10.1080/15428052.2016.1242445 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-27 Created: 2016-10-27 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
3. “Just trained to be a chef, not a leader”: A study of head chef practices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Just trained to be a chef, not a leader”: A study of head chef practices
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, ISSN 1525-6480, E-ISSN 1525-6499, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Hierarchical manners and taxing work complicate the picture of the restaurant industry, a sector in great need of personnel. There is little scientific research on daily work in restaurants. Through interviews and observations in restaurant kitchens, three head chef practices were detected: “Master the materiality” is a stipulation for leading kitchens, but does not imply leadership aspirations; “show and guide” is teambuilding through which standards are reinforced by the presence of leaders while allowing coworkers some freedom; and “overview and foresight” involves nonhierarchical supervision by head chefs during service. These practices make sense to head chefs as they enhance product quality and their reputations as professionals. The study points to a horizontal leadership in the restaurant industry and a possible new order for growth and development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keyword
Restaurants; practice theory, “interview to the double”, leadership, craft knowledge
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62655 (URN)10.1080/15256480.2017.1397584 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. ‘We are service people and we stay until the job is done’: Enactments of Professionalism in Restaurants and the Role of Workplace Training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘We are service people and we stay until the job is done’: Enactments of Professionalism in Restaurants and the Role of Workplace Training
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Culinary Arts and Meal Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62656 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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