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The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Centre)
Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5752-4196
Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2017. Vol. 159, p. 95-102
Keywords [en]
Perfluoroalkyl substances, Drinking water, Longitudinal trend, PIVUS cohort, Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61461DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.050ISI: 000413280500011PubMedID: 28780137Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-850267812292-s2.0-85026781229OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-61461DiVA, id: diva2:1149059
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR; K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; 216-2007-2047Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Assessing the longitudinal trend of POP concentrations in humans using high-throughput sample preparation methods developed for low-volume samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the longitudinal trend of POP concentrations in humans using high-throughput sample preparation methods developed for low-volume samples
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human exposure to anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their related effects on human health widely vary from person to person, making population-based risk assessment difficult.

This thesis aimed to evaluate how individual changes and implemented re-strictions in POP production influenced human exposure. High-throughput sample preparation methods were developed and applied to plasma samples col-lected for an epidemiological study so that the longitudinal change in concen-trations of a broad range of chlorinated (Cl), brominated (Br) and fluorinated POPs in humans could be efficiently evaluated.

Two 96-well plate extraction methods were used to determine the concentra-tions of Cl/Br POPs and fluorinated POPs in 150μL of plasma samples collected for the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Plasma samples from 1,016 men and women were collected three times between 2001 and 2014, after participants turned 70, 75 and 80 years old. Dif-ferences in longitudinal trends were observed between Cl/Br POPs and fluori-nated POPs as a result of their differences in time of production and imple-mented restrictions in use. The five year trend in 17 Cl POPs (14 polychlorinated biphenyls and 3 organochlorine pesticides), detected in the majority of the co-hort, and a tetra-brominated diphenyl ether detected in 34% of the follow-up samples showed a significant decrease in plasma concentrations. However, the change in Cl/Br POP concentrations was found to be slower in those who lost more weight and had greater increases in plasma lipids, and showed a faster decline in men versus women. The 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the majority of the cohort showed an overall increase in PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, while PFHpA, PFOA, FOSA, and L-PFOS showed a de-crease over ten years. One of the PFASs that showed an overall increasing trend was heavily influenced by the percentage of PFAS-contaminated drinking water distributed to the residential area.

The developed and applied methods showed a high-throughput with precise and consistent results using small sample amounts and the longitudinal trend of POPs in a prospective cohort was efficiently produced. Important information was gained on how residential location, physiological differences and changes, and implemented restrictions in POP production has effected human trends.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 65
Series
Örebro Studies in Chemistry, ISSN 1651-4270 ; 21
Keywords
Longitudinal trends; human biomonitoring; POPs; PFASs; high-throughput solid phase extraction; high-resolution mass spectrometry; tandem mass spectrometry
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63390 (URN)978-91-7529-226-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-02-16, Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:15 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved

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Stubleski, JordanSalihovic, Samiravan Bavel, BertKärrman, Anna

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