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Methylated Pahs and/or their Metabolites are Important Contributors to the Overall Estrogenic Activity of Pah-Contaminated Soils
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden)
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (M Research Center, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7338-2079
Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis CA, USA.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Center, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden)
2017 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In this study 42 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were investigated for their estrogenic potential using the VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay (VM7Luc4E2-TA). Relative potencies (REPs) were determined for mass-balance analysis. In addition, compounds were tested in combination with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) and the Ah receptor (AhR) antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone (α-NF). Luciferase induction and CYP1A1-dependent EROD-activity were measured to assess if the estrogenic activity was elicited by the compound itself and/or by its metabolites. REPs ranged between 10(-7) and 10(-4) . The ability of ICI to decrease luciferase activity stimulated by all compounds indicated that the induction responses were ER-dependent. α-NF decreased luciferase induction and EROD-activity by several compounds, including as the methylated chrysenes, suggesting that metabolites of these chemicals contributed to ER activation. Several PACs, such as acridine and its derivatives, appear to directly activate the ER. Furthermore, extracts of soils from industrial areas were examined using this bioassay and estrogenic activity was detected in all soil samples. Mass-balance analysis using a combination of REPs and chemical analysis of the samples suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, such as 1- and 3-methylchrysene, are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity. However, these results revealed that a considerable proportion of the estrogenic activity in the soil remained unexplained, indicating the presence of other significant estrogenic compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017.
Keyword [en]
ER-mediated activity, Mass-balance analysis, Metabolites, Relative Potency, VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay
National Category
Environmental Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61710DOI: 10.1002/etc.3958PubMedID: 28834568OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-61710DiVA: diva2:1156422
Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization of PAC-contaminated soil with the focus on availability, leachability and biological activities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of PAC-contaminated soil with the focus on availability, leachability and biological activities
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Current risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs)-contaminated soil are often based on the 16 priority PAHs and do not consider availability of PACs in soil sufficiently. This may lead to uncertainties of the assessment, since important contaminants can be overlooked and only a small fraction of contaminants is available for the uptake for organisms. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop a refined and enhanced analytical approach based on both chemical and bioassay analysis coupled to passive sampling with polyoxymethylene (POM) and leaching tests that can provide a more comprehensive picture of chemical pollution at PAC-contaminated sites. To achieve this, bioassay-specific relative potency factors (REPs) of PACs were determined for the H4IIE-luc bioassay, detecting AhR-mediated activity, and for the VM7luc4E2 transactivation assay, detecting ER-mediated activity for the use in potency-balance analysis. Results of uptake-experiments of PACs in earthworms and POM suggested that POM is a suitable tool to study availability of AhR and ER agonists in soil. Availability and mobility of PACs in soil were investigated by the use of POM and leaching tests. The results of potency-balance analysis showed that in soil samples, in POM-fractions or in leachates, a large fraction of AhR- or ER-agonists remained unexplained, despite the use of a large number of REPs. In addition, coupling of chemical and biological analysis to passive sampling or leaching tests revealed that only a small fraction of the total mass of PACs in the soil is available or leachable in soil. The results suggests that the use of only the total concentration in soil while ignoring unknown toxicants will lead to great uncertainties in the risk assessment. Therefore, effect-based screening using bioassays, taking availability and mobility of compounds into account, as well as a widened chemical analysis should be included in modern hazard- and risk assessment of PAH contaminated soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. 57 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Biology, ISSN 1650-8793 ; 11
Keyword
Polycyclic aromatic compounds; Availability, Mobility, Soil, Risk assessment, AhR-mediated activity, ER-mediated activity
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63314 (URN)978-91-7529-225-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-02-09, Örebro universitet, Hörsalen, Musikhögskolan, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved

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Lam, Monika M.Engwall, MagnusLarsson, Maria

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