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Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
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2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e22646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1) whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group), (2) Whole grain enriched diet (WGED) group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1), but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3) refined wheat breads (Control). Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3) long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05). Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3) PUFA.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect in the efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes in high risk persons.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2011. Vol. 6, no 8, article id e22646
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63651DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022646ISI: 000294298000001PubMedID: 21901116Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-80052072914OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-63651DiVA, id: diva2:1169215
Note

Funding agencies:

Academy of Finland 117844 117996

European Commission FOOD-CT-2005-514008

Sigrid Juselius foundation

Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation

Nordic Centre of Excellence on Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies (SYSDIET) 070014

TEKES 70103/06

Kuopio University Hospital 5254

Fazer bakeries Oy

Vaasan Vaasan Oy

KE Leipa Oy

Leipomo Ruistahka

Leipomo Koskelonseutu

Raisio Oyj

Pakkasmarja Oy

Joswola Oy

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved

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Oresic, Matej

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