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Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven- to nine-year-old Swedish children
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8675-6284
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7165-279X
Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0529-379X
Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
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2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included.

Results: The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight.

Conclusions: The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017. Vol. 45, no 8, p. 886-894
Keyword [en]
Child growth, breakfast, food habits, WHO Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63801DOI: 10.1177/1403494817724951ISI: 000418185200021PubMedID: 29160159Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85038350923OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-63801DiVA: diva2:1170562
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareThe Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Growth of schoolchildren: studies on somatic growth and deviant growth patterns such as weight loss and obesity and aspects of intake of breakfast and food items
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of schoolchildren: studies on somatic growth and deviant growth patterns such as weight loss and obesity and aspects of intake of breakfast and food items
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis is to explore somatic growth, and deviant growth patterns as episodes of weight loss and obesity development, including some aspects of meal patterns and food intake.

Methods: The thesis includes four studies, two cross-sectional studies (Paper I and II), and two longitudinal studies (Paper III and IV).

The first paper looks at assessment of BMI categories (underweight, overweight and obesity) prevalence and how the results relate to which growth reference that is used. Height and weight measurements of 4,518 Swedish schoolchildren aged 7–9 years were collected in 2008 using a standardised protocol from World Health Organization (WHO). Four growth references were used, from the WHO, the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and two Swedish growth references from Werner and Karlberg et al. (Paper I). Parts of the same data set plus a follow-up data set from 2010 was used to investigate correlations with deviances in BMI in relation to breakfast habits and selected food frequencies.

For paper three and four, a longitudinal material from two nationally representative samples was used with height and weight data of 6,572 schoolchildren, born 1973 and 1981. Episodes of BMI reduction of 10% or more were identified and correlated to final height (Paper III). The same material was used for paper four to further investigate growth patterns on group level by use of weight for height, Tri-Ponderal Mass Index (TMI), apart from BMI. On individual level, weight at age 7 years and weight at 16 years for girls and 18 years for boys, were categorized in monthly values and expressed in standard deviation (from ≤ -2 to ≥ +3 SD) (Paper IV).

Results: Depending on which growth reference we used, the prevalence of different degrees of thinness varied greatly. There were also significant gender differences depending on the growth reference we used (Paper I).

The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, drinking diet soft drinks OR 2.6, 95% and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk OR 1.8), four days a week or more (Paper II).

There was no statistically significant difference on group level in final height between individuals with and individuals without BMI reduction, independent of age and if the individuals were thin, normal weight, overweight or obese at the start of the BMI reduction episode (Paper III).

Almost the same longitudinal growth patterns were found for the two cohorts, even if weight and BMI for all almost all ages were higher in 1981 cohort. Patterns for TMI differs from those of W/H and BMI. Three main longitudinal trajectories represent the description of weight development from 7–16 years for girls and 7–18 years for boys. These patterns were mainly the same in the 1981 cohort and the 1973 cohort. (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 111
Series
Örebro Studies in Culinary Arts and Meal Science, ISSN 1652-2974 ; 13
Keyword
growth, body mass index, overweight, weight loss, body weight, malnutrition, breakfast intake, food habits, schoolchildren
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64726 (URN)978-91-7529-231-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-16, Örebro universitet, Campus Grythyttan, Gastronomiska teatern, Sörälgsvägen 2, Grythyttan, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved

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Nilsen, Bente B.Yngve, AgnetaTellström, RichardScander, HenrikWerner, Bo

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