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Worldwide Distribution of Novel Perfluoroether Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids in Surface Water
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7621-7629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6). Results showed that HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median = 0.95, 0.21, and 0.31 ng/L, respectively) were frequently detected in all countries, indicating ubiquitous dispersal and distribution in global surface waters. The presence of 6:2 H-PFESA was widely detected in China (detection rate > 95%) but not in any other country. Only trace levels of ADONA (0.013-1.5 ng/L) were detected in the Rhine River flowing through Germany. The estimated total riverine mass discharges of HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and ΣPFESAs reached 2.6, 6.0, and 4.3 ton/year in five of the major river systems in China. Our results indicated that novel PFECAs and PFESAs might become global contaminants, and future investigations are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018. Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7621-7629
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67005DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b00829ISI: 000439397800006PubMedID: 29749740Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85049342448OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-67005DiVA, id: diva2:1209753
Note

Funding Agencies:

National Natural Science Foundation of China  21737004  31320103915 

Chinese Academy of Sciences  XDB14040202 

Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2018-08-02Bibliographically approved

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Yeung, Leo W. Y.

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