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How did teachers make a living?: The teacher occupation, livelihood diversification and the rise of mass schooling in nineteenth-century Sweden
Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3444-952X
2019 (English)In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 19-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing inspiration from the new social history of livelihood, this article examines how rural nineteenth-century teachers made a living by engaging in livelihood diversification. By using a wide variety of source materials from nineteenth-century Sweden, this article shows that, far from specialising exclusively in teaching, teachers were often engaged in multiple occupations as late as the year 1900, and that teachers’ work ranged from activities that were encouraged to those that were frowned upon or even illegal. As a result, this article sheds new light on teaching as an occupation in the nineteenth century and contributes to the discussion of the social and economic positions of teachers. By investigating how teachers earned their livelihoods, this article also addresses the role of teachers’ multiple occupations in the expansion of mass schooling during the nineteenth century.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019. Vol. 48, no 1, p. 19-40
Keywords [en]
History of education, teachers, labour, profession, livelihood
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-71066DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2018.1514660ISI: 000452791400002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-71066DiVA, id: diva2:1274623
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2009-4724Available from: 2019-01-02 Created: 2019-01-02 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf